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GEOGRAPHY (Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic)


‘Geography is the study of man, his environment and interaction between the two’. This definition of geography tells you about the comprehensive nature of Geography and its vastness.

Geography has ‘overlapping’ topics which covers Environment, Economics (Human geography- Demograpy) and  Current Events. One should always have an ATLAS while studying geography. It gives you more insights, makes your reading more meaningful and enjoyable.


Recent Trend

                                         Weightage Given



As per the recent trend, atleast 15-20% weightage is given to Geography. Prima facie it may seem that weightage given to Geography has declined as compared to the pre 2011 times. But that is not the case. We would illustrate with an example:

With reference to micro-irrigation, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2011)

1. Fertilizer/nutrient loss can be reduced
2. It is the only means of irrigation in dry land farming.
3. In some areas of farming, receding of ground water table can be checked.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a.) 1 only
(b.) 2 and 3 only
(c.) 1 and 3 only
(d.) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

 This question, though basically forms part of Current Events section, has a direct correlation with Geography.


Which of the following can be threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area?(2012)

1. Global warming
2. Fragmentation of habitat
3.Invasion of alien species
4. Promotion of vegetarianism

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution (a)

This question, though basically forms part of ‘Environment’ section, it has a direct correlation with Indian Geography.

Due to the overlapping nature of questions, and increase in weightage given to Environment, Geography becomes even more important. Many of these questions can be answered, when basic concepts in Geography is clear.


Clarity of Concepts

While studying Geography, clarity of concepts and it should be substantiated with appropriate facts. Everybody (from your seniors, people who have cleared the exam, friends, fellow aspirants, even the dabbawala’s, house-brokers in delhi 🙂 ) keep talking about this clarity of concepts. But would not have explained you what does it really mean 🙂


So the next question is, what do you understand by ‘Clarity of concepts’?

We would illustrate this with an example:

The Narmada river flows to the west, while most other large peninsular rivers flow to the east. Why?(2013)

1. It occupies a linear rift valley.
2. It flows between the Vindhyas and the Satpuras.
3. The land slopes to the west from Central India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) None

Solution (a) 


Concept: Why does ‘narmada river’ is a West flowing river and not East?

Fact: Narmada river is a West flowing river.

Think & Learn: (This is for you to ponder over)

  • Which are the other west flowing rivers?
  • Why do some rivers flow West, while majority flows in the East direction?
  • Why do rivers flowing in the East direction form Deltas?
  • A general awareness on which ‘States’ they flow and ‘Hydro-electrical Projects’ and ‘Dams’ constructed across these rivers.

By now, from the above illustrations’ you would have understood the following aspects:

  • Importance of Geography
  • Clarity of Concepts
  • Significance of facts
  • Level of Difficulty of Questions

Now, let us get into the detail strategy of Geography

GEOGRAPHY is divided into two parts– Indian Geography and World Geography.

Weightage given to Indian Geography (since 2011)

2011 12
2012 18
2013 11
2014 16


More importance should be given to Indian Geography, which accounts for 80% of Geography Prelims Questions.

How to approach Indian Geography?


 India’s physiography is so diverse that it can be divided into:

  1. The Himalayas- The Greater Himalayas(Himadri), Lesser Himalayas(Himachal), Sub-Himalayas (Siwaliks)
  2. Peninsular Plateau and Peninsular Mountains
  3. The North Plains and the Coastal plains
  4. Indian Desert
  5. Islands


  • Characteristics – Example: Himalayas are young, weak, flexible
  • How were they formed? Example: The peninsula block was formed by various vertical movements and block faulting
  • Climate and Rainfall in these regions
  • Vegetation or Type of Forests found
  • Soil along the slopes
  • Biodiversity in the region

Example (2012 Prelims Questions Paper):·

When you travel in Himalayas, you will see the following :

1. Deep gorges
2. U-turn river courses
3. Parallel mountain ranges
4. Steep gradients causing land-sliding

Which of the above can be said to be the evidences for Himalayas being young fold mountains?

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1, 2 and 4 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution (d)


River System in India:

  • Indian River System can be broadly classified into 2 Major systems
  • Himalayas River system consist of -Indus, Ganga, Brahamaputra,
  • Peninsular River Systems


  • Evolution of the drainage (river) system
  • Characteristics of the River system. Example: Peninsular river system is older than the Himalayan river system. They are non-perennial rivers.
  • The states they flow through
  • Comparison between the Himalayas and the Peninsular river system
  • Hydro-Power projects, other Power plants and Major Dams built on these rivers. Example: Salal project on River Chenab
  • West flowing rivers in India. Why do these rivers flow West, while majority rivers flow in the East direction?
  • Why do east flowing rivers form deltas?

Example (2011 Prelims Questions Paper)

The Brahmaputra, Irrawady and Mekong rivers originate in Tibet and flow through narrow and parallel mountain ranges in their upper reaches. Of these rivers, Brahmaputra makes a “U” turn in its course to flow into India. This “U” turn is due to (2011)

(a.) Uplift of folded Himalayan series

(b.) Syntaxial bending of geologically young Himalayas

(c.) Geo-tectonic disturbance in the tertiary folded mountain chains

(d.) Both (a) and (b) above

Solution (b)




  • Major areas where they are found
  • Characteristics of the minerals
  • It’s Uses and Environmental impact.

Example: Coal occurs mainly in Gondwana region. It is used in power generation, but since it’s a fossil fuel it leads to release of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas)

Example (2013 Prelims Questions Paper): ·

Consider the following statements: (2013)

1. Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds.
2. Mica occurs in abundance in Kodarma.
3. Dharwars are famous for petroleum.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) None

Solution (b)


 Example (2014 Prelims Questions Paper): 

With reference to two non-conventional energy sources called ‘coal bed methane’ and ‘shale gas’, consider the following ‘statements:
1. Coal bed methane is the pure methane gas extracted from coal seams, while shale gas is a mixture of propane and butane only that can be extracted from fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
2. In India abundant coal bed methane sources exist, but so far no shale gas sources have been found.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (d)



 Note: Before studying about Monsoons, go through the Climate topic under World Geography for Basic understanding on Climate and Weather.


  • Factors determining the Climate of India
  • Indian Monsoon
    • It’s nature/characteristics, significance and impact
  • Upper Air circulation- Jet streams, Westerlies
  • Cyclones – tropical and temperate
  • El-Nino, La-Nino (More Emphasis should be given)
    • How is it developed?
    • How does this effect Indian climate and vegetation
    • Related concepts like upwelling and its advantages

Example (2011 Prelims Questions Paper):·

La Nina is suspected to have caused recent floods in Australia. How is La Nina different from El Nino?

(a.) La Nina is characterised by unusually cold ocean temperature in equatorial Indian Ocean whereas El Nino is characterised by unusually warm ocean temperature in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

2. El Nino has adverse effect on south-west monsoon of India, but La Nina has no effect on monsoon climate.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a.) 1 only

(b.) 2 only

(c.) Both 1 and 2

(d.) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (d)


Example (2012 Prelims Questions Paper):·

Consider the following statements:
1.The duration of the monsoon decreases from southern India to northern India.
2.The amount of annual rainfall in the northern plains of India decreases from east to west.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (c)

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