Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 11]
GS 1) Analyse the major differences between Carnatic and Hindustani classical music forms. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
This is a straight-forward answer, but while listing the differences ensure that you cover a very broad perspective with wide ranging topics, Around 5-6 differences would be more than enough to get 5/6 marks.
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Anshika
Ans) Prior to 13 th century their was only one music style,Post which the music system was divided into Hindustani and Carnatic ,Hindustani has influence from Persian and Mughal Influence started making its place with Amir Khusro while Carnatic was popularised by Saint Purandaradasa.
Origin: Hindustani Music has its origin in several part of north and north western India while Carnatic music originated in Karnataka region
Source: In Hindustani Music the main source is ” Sangita Ratnakara ” of Sarangdeva
the carnatic music was popularised by Saint Purandaradasa and Carnatic Music trinity of Saint Tyagaraja, MuthuswamyDikshitar and Saint Tygaraja
Style: While carnatic music has one distinict style , Hindustani music has many different Gharanas or music style like Jaipur Gharana ,Gwalior Gharana
Ragas: Their are more Ragas in Carnatic style when compared to Hindustani Style
Some of Ragas have different name in both like ShankaraBharanama in Carnatic is called Bilaval in Hindustani
Instruments: Instruments play an important role in music , Hindustani music the main accompanying instruments are tabla( a kind of preussion instruments ) , Sitar , Sarangi( stringed instrument) ,Santoor, Clarionet etc. The accompanying instrument in Carnatic music style are Veena( stringed instrument) , Mridangam, Mandolin ,Violin, Gottuvadyam ,Jalatarangam and like.
Rendition : Raga, tala and Pallavi form Crux of Raga exposition in Carnatic,Raga exploration is given primary importance in Hindustani
These are some the differences between 2 well known classical music system of India.
GS 2) Critically discuss the potential of IBSA forum, India’s role in it and the need for its revival. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
This answer can be divided into three parts – Positives of IBSA and it’s potential, Negatives of IBSA and it’s potential and India’s role in it.
Around 3 points under each header, with a good intro saying what IBSA is, and a good conclusion regarding India’s role in enhancing IBSA would be a perfect answer.
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Sepoy No. 1446
Ans) IBSA was formed as a forum of India,Brazil and South Africa through Brazilia declaration in 2003 but has remained overshadowed by BRICS so far.
Potential of IBSA:
1.As a true south-south cooperation,IBSA can provide a strong voice in UNSC against arbitrary unilateral decisions of aggression over certain country.
2.All three country are located near to oceans and maritime security and co-operation can be pursued using this platform.
3.To improve trade and commerce relations
4.As a link between East and West. BRICS is being seen as Anti-West.In that case IBSA can be a bridge b/w East and West.
5.India can voice its demand for permanent seat of UNSC more vigorously using IBSA.
India is partly to be blamed for under-performace of IBSA. It is too occupied with BRICS. India needs to invest more in IBSA both strategically and financially.The next IBSA summit to be held in India is a good chance for India to re-energize the forum by taking some concrete steps.More financial allocation,frequent high ministerial level meetings and giving importance to the joint decisions reached on forum on global matters will make IBSA visible.
Though the forum was established to pitch in for more equitable UNSC reforms,it was also intended to provide a platform for enhanced coordination on global issues,trade and commerce,cultural exchange and security matters.But the forum has so far failed to mark any big impact and is overly overshadowed by BRICS. Hence a revival is needed.
GS 3) The initial generations of Bio-fuels have been seen as a threat to the food security of the country. Comment on these various generations and explain how do the third generation bio-fuels address these food security problems? (200 Words, 10 Marks)
Most of the answer is given in the question itself. So this becomes a very simple answer even if you dont know the theory behind it. It says 3rd generation biofuels address the “food security” threads caused by the previous generations. That is all the clue you need to answer this question.
So, two-line description about each generation biofuel, a good intro and a short conclusion would be more than enough for this answer, within 200 words.
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Aemmy
Ans) With exhausting fossil fuels and increasing oil prices and environmental problems, alternative sources of energy is a major concern today. In this regard bio-fuels provide a safe, renewable, environment friendly and efficient source of energy.
Generation of Bio-fuels
1. First Generation: Produced directly from food crops such as wheat, sugar rapeseeds, etc. for manufacturing bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, etc.
2. Second Generation: Produced from non-food crops such as wood, organic waste, food crop waste and specific biomass crops.
3. Third generation: Algae used as energy source. Culture of algae is low cost; produces more energy per acre, land and water unsuitable for food crop can be used for production , manufacturing of varied
fuels such as petrol, diesel, jet fuel etc. is possible.
4. Fourth generation is aimed at creating sustainable energy as well as carbon sequestration and reducing CO2 emission.
Problem with first generation: Rise in demand for biofuels has led diversion of land and food crops to grow and produce bio-diesel leading to global increase in food prices hence a threat to food security. Carbon emission in their production is also higher causing negative net energy gain.
Solution through third generation: As we can see above third generation bio-fuels overcame these limitations, addressing the contention of fuel vs food and hence can avert the threat to food security.