Synopsis and Review-Think and Learn [Day 30]

  • IAS baba
  • July 29, 2015
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Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 30]

GS 1) Write a note on the depiction of Gautam Buddha in ancient Indian art and architecture. (200 Words, 10 Marks)

The Top Answer for this question is written by – Deepansh

Ans) Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, has been the central figure of Indian art and architecture and is depicted in a variety of styles and forms like:

1. Formless Buddha-

a) Testament to the Hinayana phase of Buddhism, here Buddha was not shown in a human form, but instead was symbolically depicted.

b) Symbols like Bodhi Tree, Empty Throne, Dharma Wheel, etc. were used in caves and stupas

like Ajanta cave and Sanchi stupa

2. Sculptures- Promoted during the Mahayana phase, where Buddha was revered in Human form. This style is best evinced by Gandhara and Mathura schools of art.

a) Gandhara- seated like a yogi with features including wavy hair, characteristic protuberance, beard and large ears.

b) Mathura- features include shaven head and face, protuberance on the forehead, right hand in abhay mudra and halo decorated with geometrical motifs

3. Mural Paintings- Illustrations of tales from the Jataka stories, with Buddha in human form, were painted which can be seen in the Ajanta and Ellora Paintings.

With ideals of truth, renunciation and tolerance as his instruments, Buddha spread the message of love. The architectural marvels and the exotic art forms situated across the globe are evidence of the sphere of influence his teachings had.

GS 2) Comment on the areas of cooperation between India and China. Do you agree with the view that strong trade relations would eventually make border disputes irrelevant in the future? Comment. (200 Words, 10 Marks)

The Top Answer for this question is written by – Sepoy No. 1446

Ans) India and China relations have matured over the decades and are now multi-dimensional. The relationship has shown resilience and is more robust compared to early 60’s and 70’s.

The relationship can be understood in following dimensions:

1.Cultural dimension: This is an evergreen dimension. Buddhism remains common cultural denominator to both countries. Existence of “Confucius institutes” in India shows the reciprocal exchange of cultural heritage.

2.Strategic dimension: It has transformed from outright hostility at border to a mutually restraint stalemate. Though boundary disputes remains the concern, both countries are now focusing more on outward growth of economy. China’s pursuance of “One belt, one road” strategy cuts across India’s “Act East” and “Look West” Policy.

3.Economic dimension: This has grown much larger in scale in recent years. Both countries are now targeting mutual trade of 100 billion USD to be achieved in near future. The partnership in BRICS bank and proposed RCEP trade block strengthens the economic relations between both.

4.Diplomatic dimensions: Platform like BRICS, and SCO provide good platform to improve relations. Issue of stapled visa is an aberration which seems subdued in recent times.

Potential of Economic relationship:

Economic relationship can be an effective alternate way for both countries to engage each-other. It will result in, apart from obvious economic growth, in following:

-improved people-to-people relations

-Commercial relations decide contour of foreign relations

-This needs a peaceful and stable border for future engagement

-Which will assist in sorting out border disputes.

Thus early border settlement needs to be expedited if both countries have to share a robust long-term economic relationship. Significance of economic relationship should be seen in that context.

GS 3) Analyse the twin objectives of the Indian defence industry. Do you think policies advocated and implemented so far have done justice to these twin objectives? Comment. (200 Words, 10 Marks)

The Top Answer for this question is written by – Sepoy No. 1446

Ans) Defence is a critical subject matter for any country and its vital for a country to be self-sufficient in defence matters in order to achieve a secure,safe and strong position.Indian defence industry is still far from that position.It still imports more than 50% of its weapons from foreign countries,like US,Israel,Russia and Europe.

To alter this situation it has set two objectives for its defense policy:

1.Self-reliance:Trusting indigenous technology

2.Self-sufficiency:To reduce dependence on foreign weapon suppliers

Two impediments are visible in achieving above objectives

1.Institutional failures:We didn’t had the right technology,but at the same time,our focus had been more on import of weapons itself,rather than on transfer of technology.

2.Supplier resistance:India took course corrective wrt first problem and introduced FDI in defence in 2001 and Defence offset policy in 2005 .The latter requires suppliers to invest at least 30 per cent of the contract value in country.This was aimed to spur domestic manufacturing.But the results so far have not been so positive.Offset policy has been cited one of the reasons for delayed defense deals as suppliers are often resistant to comply with this norm.

Above challenges can be dealt by introducing “buy and make” and “transfer of technology” provision in contract under new Make in India campaign.This is the direction Indian defence industry should move towards.

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