IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 34]
GS 1) “The continuity of features as well as themes from the ancient and medieval forms is evident in the present day Indian architecture “- Elucidate. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Nishant
Ans) Modern Indian Architecture is a blend of ancient and medieval styles along with some novel features. A few examples in this regard:
Akshardham temple in New Delhi is a fine example of Nagara temple architecture of the Guptas and Solankis. It is built on the Panchayatan style with 4 subsidiary shrines and a main shrine in the
centre. The sculpture theme is largely borrowed from Vishnupuran. Similarly, Dravidian style is easy to find in newly built temples in South India.
A combination of Indo-Islamic and Victorian styles can be seen in British and later constructions. Use of marble, red sandstone, dome structure and ‘Chaar-Baagh’ style as taken from Mughal architecture is visible in building like the Supreme Court, India Gate etc. Paintings inspired from Ajanta and Ellora adorn the walls of Rashtrapati Bhavan. Lutyens Lane in Delhi is inspired from Roman architecture, marked by simple designs and linear constructions.
Indus Valley urban planning is followed not just in India but the world over. All prominent cities are based on the concept of a city center, perpendicular roads and underground sewage to name a few.
With half of Modern India yet to be built, we should take inspiration from our rich past to construct future marvels of Indian Architecture.
GS 2) Briefly outline the merits and demerits of the Westminster model of Parliamentary democracy and the US model of Presidential System in the Indian context. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Jeandreze
Ans) Indian Constitution has adopted Westminster model as it gave precedence to “responsibility” over “stability”.
The Merits of Westminster model:-
1. Due to Double Membership there is harmony between legislature and executive.
2. Responsible government because of dissolution of the lower house.
3. Prevents despotism because of fusion of powers.
4. Regional representation is wide, India is multi-religious, linguistic nation this gives representation to varied groups.
Demerits of Westminster model:-
1. Unstable Government and has no continuity in government policies
2. Wide representation exists but not quality.
3. Against the principle of separation of powers
Merits of Presidential Government:-
1. Stable Government because President is elected for fixed term
2. Definite Policies and is a Government of experts.
3. Based on principle of separation of powers because President and legisltors are elected separately
Demerits of Presidential Government :-
1. Conflict between legislture and executive because of single membership.
2. May lead to autocracy because of domination of President.
3. Narrow representation and a non responsible government.
India has preferred Parliamentary system as adopted from 1935 Act because of :-
1. Exposure to the system in pre – independence era
2. Preference for responsibilty over stability.
3. Fear of Dominance of rulers esp in India where hero worship was prevalent on communal lines.
4. Multi ethnic population.
GS 3) Identify the sectors in science and technology development where India has made remarkable strides in indigenisation and has made footprints in the global arena. Illustrate. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Sepoy No. 1446
Ans) Science and technology forms backbone of any country’s development process. Keeping that in mind, many premier educational institutes, research centers, schools of excellence and foreign collaboration were formed just after independence. This helped India in making her footprint in few sectors and created potential in few others:
Sectors of excellence:
1.Software industry: Information technology and consultancy based services had led to a service led economy. No doubt this has got a truly global acceptance.
2.Space sector: Since launching of Aryabhata in 1975 India has come a long way. Now ISRO is capable of launching satellites of other countries. New launch vehicles like GSLV and PSLV have increased success ratio in satellite launching. Projects like Magalyaan, Chandrayan-I, Chandryan-II, SAARC satellite and GAGAN navigation system truly represent the excellence that we have achieved today.
3.Generic drugs: Known for its mass production and lower cost.
4.Medical tourism: India is famous for offering quality medical services with less cost burden.
5.Defence Nuclear technology: Confirmed by Pokharan tests
1. Academics: Absence of Indian universities in top 200 global ranking is worrisome. Quality R&D project,innovative academic curricula and less of plagiarism is needed.
2. Solar technology: Still to reach the peak level. National solar mission will assist in this.
3. Defence setor: limited indigenisation has been achieved.
4. Civil Nuclear technology.