IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 38]
GS 1) Critically comment on the depiction of women in contemporary Indian cinema. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Nishant
Ans) Cinema as an art of expression has been the microcosm of collective life of the society of its time. Women characters, be it of a mother, wife, lover have been an integral if not dominant part of Indian Cinema.
The 1950’s and 60s depicted women as feeble and secondary to their male counterparts. But the portrayal was invariably dignified and respectful. Few movies of that time stood out for showing strong women characters such as in Mother India.
With the advent of globalization, 1980s-90s was the period of transition in the Indian Society. Women in movies became more confident and out-going. New themes like co-ed education, love marriages and rebellion became common. Objectification of women through arousing dances began from this period.
Post 2000s, the portrayal of women oscillates between two extremes. On one end there are movies with central women characters, celebrating their potential, skills and achievements, eg. a boxer in Mary Kom , an IPS officer in Drishyam etc. At the same, the objectification and sexualization of women is nearly bordering on vulgarity. There’s a Munni, Sheila ready to dance for you in skimpy clothes for the ticket price.
Cinema has a strong bearing on the youth, especially belonging to the lower income group who cannot afford other means of recreation. Thus, the linkage between increased sexual crimes and cinema shouldn’t be ignored casually.
GS 2) Write a critical note on the nature of relationship within federal framework between Delhi state and the Union government. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Anurag
Ans) The Union territory of Delhi was created for political and administrative purpose by the 7th constitutional amendment act and the State Reorganisation Act. The 69th constituional amendemnet act gave special status to the Union territory of Delhi, redesignated it as National Capital Territory of Delhi and the administrater of Delhi was designated as the Lt. Governor. The act created a legislative assemble with 70 seats and a council of ministers like normal states.
But, unlike the other states, here the CM is appointed by President rather than the Governor .The CM and council of ministers hold offices during the pleasure of President. In Delhi, both Union govt and the state assembly can make all laws on matters which are listed in state list and concurrent. But Union law prevails over local laws. Further state cannot make laws with respect to public order, police and land and only union govt. can make law in these regard. Also the Lt. governor of delhi has more discretionary powers compared to the governors of state.
Thus Delhi doesnt follow the federal structure of other states and the union govt. is the main governing body.These had led to clashes between the local govt. and the union govt.
GS 3) Write a critical note on the problems and prospects of India’s major sea-ports. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Kiran
Ans) India has a vast coastline serviced by 12 major ports and around 200 intermediary and minor ports. Yet, these ports are not attractive or successful as those in china.
Some of the problems faced by these ports are:
—- 1) Hinterland Connectivity
——- Connectivity from the major ports to various parts through rail, road, etc are very poor. This calls for improvement in connectives. Land Acquisition through the new Land Acquisition act can solve this issue.
—- 2) Tariff rates
—— Tariffs of each terminal in ports are determined by Tariff Authority of Major Ports(TAMP). They set the rates according to the time period of establishment of terminal. This leads to lack of competition and hence make less attractive. BK Chaturvedi committee appointed to look into this matter has suggested that ports set the tariff as determined by market forces.
—- 3) Turnaround Time
—- Indian ports notoriously have a huge turn around time compared to Chinese ports.
—- 4) Fewer number of terminals
—- Number of terminals in each part of the port is lesser. This leads to bottleneck in the port and thereby increasing the turnaround time.
Various steps like modernization of ports, privatization, easing of the regulatory frameworks need to be taken to improve the condition of ports and therby countering Chinese competition. As most of the export/import happens through ports its imperative that we develop the ports to full capacity.