Note: We are not providing directives for maps and terminologies. These questions when attempted and compiled by you would be handy as a ready reference compendium.
What we noticed in many answers was the lack of details. For example, a 30 word map question must encompass at least 5-6 geographical characteristics. Very few of you used proper legends for marking the locations. These small things improve your answers.
Now, moving on to descriptive questions.
3. By applying region approach, identify the trends of population growth of the world. (25 marks)
Directives: This question was posted to demonstrate how 2 different components of the syllabus can be clubbed together.
The structure of the answer should be as following:
Explain the meaning of region approach and its applicability in population studies in at least 40 words.
Start systematically from North America and then move to regions having similar growth patterns. Don’t follow continent wise. Region is an abstract concept. It doesn’t exist in reality. You can club two different parts into one region if they have similar characteristics. That is why N America and Western Europe can be clubbed into one region as they are all in stage IV of the demographic transition and have stable population.
Also explain the causative factors. Why South and South East Asia have an increasing population? Why CDR is high in Sub Saharan Africa? Such reasons must be provided to give a complete picture.
Provide maps, charts and diagrams for explaining the trends.
Conclude by summarizing your observations and by projecting the trends for the future. For example, in W Europe, Japan and N America, the population will decline in the coming future. This is because of a top heavy population pyramid and low CBR. Geographers interpret this trend as the 5th phase of demographic transition. Similarly, you can also project the trends for other parts of the world.
4. Write a short note on geographical control of population in the Indian context. (25 marks)
Directives: This is an easy question. What it required was a comprehensive list of all geographic factors clubbed under different sections and their explanations. These factors can be: physiography, climate, soil, vegetation, agricultural potential, industrial development, urban growth, cultural identity or the lack of it, environmental hazards, epidemics and diseases etc. On a map of India, the representation of various parts in terms of the controlling factors and associated distribution can be added to impart some novelty to your answers. The more multidimensional you make your answer, better are your chances for getting good marks.
5. Virtually all the world’s natural increase is concentrated in the LDCs of Africa, Asia and Latin America, whereas the population is growing slowly or actually declining in MDCs. Discuss (25 marks)
Directives: This question expects you to apply the concept of demographic transition into two parts. In part one, you were expected to factor all the reasons that are responsible for the increasing population of LDCs which are in either stage II or III of the demographic transition. In part two, you were supposed to enumerate the reasons for the stable MDC populations, a feature typical of stage IV. You were also required to briefly describe the recent trend of declining populations in MDCs, perhaps an indication of stage V of demographic transition where due to a top heavy population pyramid with a narrow base, the population will decline in the future.
Geography TLP: Day 2 synopsis
What we have noticed is that very few of you attempted the question on gender composition of migration. This is disappointing. Challenging questions are meant for your own benefit. Never refrain from answering them.
Now, moving on to descriptive questions.
3. By applying systems approach, analyse the concept of migration, its causes and consequences. (25 marks)
Directives: Systems encompass a set of elements, links between these elements and also with outside elements. The phenomenon of migration can also be understood by applying the systems approach wherein the causative factors, actual movement of people and the consequences therein become the elements of the open migration system and their causative links as well as feedback mechanisms explain the behavior of the system.
You were supposed to analyse the question in this light. For example, series relationship could be demonstrated by the irreversible change in land use pattern by the inflow of migrants into an area. You could take the case of Delhi-NCR. Similarly parallel relationship could be demonstrated by the phenomena of migrant inflow and changing social intercourse leading to socio-cultural strife. Why crime is on rise in urban centres?? Feedback relationship could be explained by establishing the perpetual cycle of inward migration, poverty, unsustainable resource use and environmental degradation reinforcing each other.
4. The number of people living in a region is not by itself an indication of overpopulation. Critically comment. (15 marks)
Directives: This is an easy question. The best way to answer such questions is to make your answer multidimensional and provide as many examples as possible both from around the world and India. Some of the important dimensions could be: physiographic and climatic constraints on population, agricultural density of population, resource endowment, application of technology, distribution of resources and equity thereof etc. Examples range from Sub Saharan Africa to Japan and from Australia to South Asia which defy the simplistic relationship between large population and overpopulation.
In conclusion, it was imperative to explain the concept of optimum population.
5. Write a short note on the changing gender composition of migration. (15 marks)
Directives: Very few answers were received for this one. Most of those who attempted misunderstood the question.
The question is asking about the changing trends of migration in terms of gender composition. You were supposed to do a spatio-temporal analysis of the same. Take Mexico for example. Almost throughout the 20th century, the bulk of the emigrants to USA was predominantly male. However, for the past few decades, the gender composition has got almost inverted with more women migrating to the US. The reasons are many which include changing cultural landscape in the Mexican society, avenue for extra source of income for the family, rise in opportunities for female workers etc. Bangladeshi women migrate to India illegally to work in metro cities as domestic help. With the growth of hospitality industry in India, Nepalese women are coming to India in much larger numbers to work at wellness centres. Moroccan women migrate to France to work as street vendors.
Similar approach could be followed for other parts of the world.