Q.1) Corporate funding in India has a history that goes back to the freedom movement. Outline the history, legislation governing over corporate funding in India and explores the perils of over-reliance on corporate funding.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Heidi
Ans) Corporate funding has become one of the major causes of crony capitalism and political corruption over the years.
– During our freedom struggle industrialists and business men of our country hugely donated to the congress party. Tatas and Birlas contributed to the party. To break the nexus it was banned in 1969 but revoked later in 1985.
– Under Section 29C of the Representation of People’s Act, the political parties are required to declare the details of contributions of more than Rs. 20,000 and prepare a report for the same in each financial year
– Under Sec 182 of Companies Act 2013, donations to political parties must be in existence for a minimum period of three years and only up to 7.5% of its profit in a year.
– ‘Electoral Trusts Scheme, 2013’ has been enacted in order to streamline the process of corporate funding.
– Increased corporate pressure and influence on government policies which lead to crony capitalism.
– Ever increasing peril of black money circulation during elections in particular.
– Corporate funding can lead to increased corruption in politics.
– The interests of the poor and marginalized will be negotiated by favoring the corporate.
The way forward
– Strict enforcement of these legislations to curb unholy nexus between politicians and corporates.
– Considering the state funding of political parties as suggested by Dinesh goswami committee.
Q.2) Active participation in a democracy should be voluntary. Is compulsory voting against democracy? Substantiate your answer with a critical examination of the above statement.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Rohit
Ans) A few years ago, SC included an option called NOTA, claiming it would upheld the rights of voters to reject all the candidates and will help in numerating the views of voters and help to clean the political system. This was done to increase the public participation in democracy.
Recently GJ govt has come up with an idea of compulsory voting to increase the participation.
The idea of compulsory voting can be for or against the democracy –
For democracy –
— Civil Duty – A democracy would become better if every people realise that they not only have a stake in the democracy but can also change it.
— Political temper – More people will be engaged to the process, develop political temper, read the manifestos and hence elect better candidates.
— It has been seen that the voting percentage in villages have been greater than that in urban cities. Which points to the ignorance of well off people to be a part of democracy. Compulsory voting will force them to be a part of democracy.
— Revenue could be generated through fines.
— Voters always have NOTA , if they are uninformed about the candidates.
— Right vs Duty – It will make voting a duty rather than a right. Not expressing the political view is also a freedom which will be exploited.
— Some people really do not have time to vote. Which questions the feasibility of the process.
— It will be easy for the corrupt/powerful political parties to influence the non voters to vote them.
— Random votes of uninformed voters can be a threat to a better government.
Compulsory elections can be a threat to greater level of freedom and participation to those involved in the process specially in a bigger country like India. Creating awareness about the power to vote is the way to go ahead rather than to make voting compulsory.
Q.3) Discuss the recent developments regarding NRI Voting in India.Do you agree with the view that NRI’s should be given the Right to Vote?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Heidi
Ans) Being a genuine demand, NRIs were given the right to vote Under newly added Article 20 (A) of the RPA in 2010
The recent developments
– NRIs can now enroll in the electoral rolls in India.
– Eligible voters can register online for an e-postal voting
– National Information Center is mandated with IT assistance to the Election Commission in this regard.
– This will enable 11 million NRIs to vote through web based e- postal ballot.
Granting NRIs the voting right is a progressive step because
– Giving them an opportunity to vote will ensure that, their problems are rightly heard and their interests are duly represented.
– Being huge in numbers,their vote can make significant influence in their respective constituencies.
– Leaving home and living abroad give little opportunity for them to be a part of our democratic politics. right to vote will make them informed citizens and vigilant political observers.
– Acknowledging their immense contribution to our economy as remittance is important. their remittance is the economic backbone in the states like Kerala
Though there are technical and structural complications, our collective effort can ensure democratic participation of NRIs in the near future.
Q.4) Has ‘Social Security and Welfare’ in India fulfilled the demand of protection & promotion of an individual? Critically examine if the MNREGA has resulted in an increase in the purchasing power and the standard of living of rural households.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Santhosh Venkatesh
Ans) Social security and welfare is mentioned in Part IV of our constitution involving DPSP. There are two aspects of Social security – Protection and Promotion.
Protection of Individual – to ensure living standards to not decrease
Central schemes such as National Social Assistance Programme for poor along with numerous state run schemes are examples. Recent surveys indicate that these schemes have had delays but have reached target beneficiaries.
Promotion of Individual – to overcome deprivation by increasing living standards
Nutrition and Work entitlements for all via Food security act and MNREGA were major initiatives. Many states have not implemented NFSA but it is hoped to prevent deprivation in future.
With regard to MNREGA issues such as implementation, Delayed payments, lower outlays by the government, lower quality of created assets have surfaced.
But MNREGA has protected poor from Crop failure, seasonal Unemployment, need for Migration, loans and Money lenders. World Bank has recognised MNREGA effective substitute for lack of crop and weather insurance in India. Also a recent survey has indicated that MNREGA helped reduce poverty by 32 %.
Recent initiatives of government such as Atal Pension Yojana and U-WIN card will ensure social security but need legal backing. MNREGA despite its failings has increased purchasing power and the standard of living of rural households thereby ensuring economic sustainability of rural poor.
Q.5) How significant are the recent strides made in the legislation of child rights by the human rights institutions? Evaluate.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – SK
Ans) Many legislations that are related to child rights in India are the outcomes of sustained campaigns by the human rights institutions. The most recent one is the Juvenile Justice Bill. The government has tried to push the Bill through the Parliament though it contained several controversial provisions. For example, the Bill declares that those who commit heinous crimes between the ages of 16-18 will be tried as “adults” for punishment. Many human rights institutions opposed to it citing international provisions under United Nations Commission on Rights of Child, which treats children up to age of 18 as juveniles. Since they gathered public opinion against the Bill, it was stalled for revision.
Various institutions, including corporates, fought for Right to Education for children. Thus, 86th Amendment in 2002 came into force providing for Right to compulsory primary Education for children up to 14 years.
Similarly, several institutions worked hard to prevent forced labor of children. Recently, child’s rights activist Kailash Satyarthi won Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to reduce incidence of child labor.
After 65 years of independence, only recently the Parliament could pass a law against sexual offences on children – POCSO act. This could not have come into light, but for sustained pressure exerted by the rights institutions.
Thus, human rights institutions have a significant contribution on the legislations for child’s rights in India.