Q.1) ‘Liberty requires both security and privacy’. Critically evaluate the scope of Internet governance in ensuring the same.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Sepoy No 1446
Ans) Absolute liberty creates chaos and hence no state can allow it. In the era of internet and digital revolution, the concept of liberty has become more fragile, complicated and challenging.
Two important aspects of this liberty needs to be analyzed:
Digital privacy: Impersonal nature of interactions in digital world acts as an incentive for third party to hack the data and look into private, sensitive information. Individual privacy can be in form of blackmail with compromising data exchanged over chats and email exchanges.Corporate privacy can be related to leakage of patented technology and crucial company data which can put companies at a loss
Digital security: It includes cyber hacking, virus attack, controlling government websites, breakdown of the national defence servers etc. These have wider security implications.
Hence, internet governance needs to ensure both. Internet governance includes these aspects. For examples:
– IT act 2000 regulates IT and internet in India. Specific section like 66A has been criticized for violating liberty and freedom of expression rights. Hence amendment needed
– Multi-stakeholders model like ICANN aims to democratize internet thus breaking monopoly of US and western countries. This is important to preserve the dual aspect of liberty,especially after incidents like NSA snooping, wikileaks and Edward Snowden case.
With increase in E-governance, more services, institutions and individuals are coming into vulnerable zones. Hence a robust governance system will be the first criteria to ensure digital privacy and digital security.
Q.2) Keeping in view the Pathribal incidence, comment on the increase of ‘rogue elements’ in the security forces encouraging miscarriage of justice.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – SK
Ans) Ever since the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) was enacted, there has been an increase in the number of “Rogue Elements” in the security forces. Besides, cash incentives and rewards to the army personnel for killing militants encouraged the rogue elements to undertake various dubious means to earn those rewards. It is on these lines, the Pathribal incident happened in 2000, where few civilians were killed and showed to the world as “foreign militants” by the Army. Several such fake encounters and human rights abuses were reported in other areas of Kashmir and in North East states where AFSPA is under operation.
The victims of these incidents were denied justice by not convicting even a single person who is guilty. Only recently in the Macchil case, for the first time, the Court Martial convicted rogue elements and awarded sentences. Immunity provided to the security forces under AFSPA and prior sanction requirement for civilian investigation is the cause for rise of rogue elements.
Jeevan Reddy committee recommended amending AFSPA to punish the guilty personnel and to bring them under UAPA for civilian control. Also, after the Pathribal case, the Supreme Court held that there is no need for prior sanction, unlike CBI, for Court Martial. These measures would revive the hope of accountability of rogue elements in armed forces.
Q.3) What is asymmetric warfare? Explore the possible tactics and challenges involved.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Heidi
Ans) Asymmetric warfare can be attributed to the ancient ‘Chanakyan Tactics’ of fighting the powerless. In modern times it has numerous manifestations like ‘Guerrilla warfare, counter terrorism, insurgency, proxy war etc. It is the war between two unequals in terms of power, Tactics and strategy. The world has witnessed many of them including Vietnam war, Afghan war, Philippine American war etc.
– Destruction of strategic infrastructures like roads, power stations, water storage, military bases etc (World Wars)
– Using technological advantage to make losses on the weaker side and Guerrilla warfare (Vietnam war)
– Provoking protests among representatives and public in the rival country (Recent Russian Crimean conflict)
– Propaganda and false allegations to gain international support (Iraq war and propaganda of WMD)
– Terrorists tactics and suicide bombings (World Trade Center attack)
– ‘Might is right’ will likely become the rule in international disputes. (Palestine Israel conflict)
– There is an increasing chance of terrorist outfits acquiring sophisticated modern technologies and weapons challenging international peace. (ISIS)
– International community can be fooled by false propaganda (Iraq war)
– Economic sanctions can destabilize weaker states (Cuba, Venezuela, Iran)
Strict enforcement of UN Arms Trade Treaty and UNSC reforms can address the issue to a great extent.
Q.4) Write a short note on the recommendations by Naresh Chandra to strengthen the security task force of India.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Deepansh
Ans) Naresh Chandra Committee was created with the objective of reforming the ailing higher defense management and strengthening the National Security System of the country.
Amend Prevention of Corruption Act: To protect officers from harassment over ‘error in judgment’ while making defense purchases. This will help officers escape any scrutiny which seems unfair and also raises the issue of accountability.
Induct Foreign Language Experts: In intelligence and Security agencies which lack trained linguists.
Accept Officers on Deputation in MEA: Officials from armed forces with requisite technical and technological background will help in diplomatic missions.
Create New Posts: Chairman Chief of Staff Committee (CoSC), to assess the strengths and weaknesses of India’s adversaries, and Intelligence Advisor, to assist NSA.
Establish New Institutions:
Advanced Projects Agency – for research into advanced weapons
National Defense University and Think Tank – for knowledge and training in defense and for policy formulations on internal security.
National Counter-Terrorism Centre – to fight terrorism.
Increase FDI in Defense: To manufacture products in India with latest technologies.
Setup Special Forces: Under the command of CoSC to enhance special warfare capabilities, on the lines of US Navy Seals.
In the wake of recent attacks, like the one in Manipur, it is of paramount importance to revisit our defense capabilities and strengthen it to tackle future strategic threats.
Q.5) “Refugee crisis is more of a global security concern than humanitarian crisis”. Comment. Do you agree with the view that Refugee Crisis of East and West are different faces of the same coin?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – SK
Ans) Refugees are those people who flee their own-country due to threat to life. In the recent past this has turned into a crisis due to massive increase in their numbers.
In the East, refugee crisis was seen in Myanmar, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Tibet, and Bangladesh. Here the reasons for fleeing the country are ethnic conflict (Sri Lanka), communal threats (Bangladesh, Myanmar), Terror threat (Taliban in Afghanistan) etc. The Rohingya crisis in Myanmar is the recent one. According to UN, “Rohingyas are the most persecuted minorities in the world.”
West and Middle East
In these regions, including parts of Africa, major causes for refugee crisis are:
Rise of terror groups – ISIS in Syria-Iraq; Boko Haram in Nigeria; Al Shabab in Somalia etc. Civil Wars – Syria and North Africa (Arab Spring).
This refugee crisis has posed a global security concern, more than humanitarian concern. These security concerns are: fear of radicalisation of citizens; religious propaganda; law and order problems; changes in demographic factors etc.
Thus, refugee crisis in East and West are based on two different grounds, which can be viewed as two sides of a coin. It is necessary to control the crisis by having International cooperation. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees should be sufficiently funded to tackle the crisis.