Q.1) “The UNO needs structural and functional reforms that are needed to be infused into as new issues and forces impinge on its functioning”. Comment.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – RKM
Ans) UNO is an intergovernmental organization which was made to replace the ineffective League of Nations in 1945 so as to avoid another world war.But during cold war , US and USSR often paralysed the organization and it intervened only in conflicts nit related to cold war thereby not fulfilling its mandate of peacekeeping in world.Although it did help in decolonization process.
Even in post cold war era it failed in its mission as seen in Somalia and Rwanda crisis.Several organs of UNO like UNESCO and UNICEF faced charges of corruption due to which several countries withdrew their funding. So due to above issues and also due to dynamically changing polarity of world and other emerging humanitarian, environmental crisis it certainly need some reforms.
Structural reforms –
– Expansion of UNSC so to to ensure proper representation of world which currently is skewed in the favour of west.
– Do away with Veto power.
– Efficiency and transparency watchdog to remove corruption issues.
– Funding should not be voluntary and must be based on CBDR principle.
Functional reforms –
– Decisions should be as far as possible based on consensus.
– Organizations like NATO should be avoided and be replaced by UNO forces in conflicts.
– UN secretry general should not be a rubber stamp and need more powers.
So for UNO to remain relevant in the new multipolar world , these reforms should be done on priority , otherwise it faces the risk of losing its relevance.
Q.2) ‘Last two decades has seen incessant growth of several regional organizations that indirectly expose the crisis present in International Organizations’. What are the reasons of such growth? Do you think International Organizations have lost its relevance?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – SK
Ans) Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been a rise in the number of regional organizations throughout the world for various reasons. Some of these reasons are:
Finance and Trade – Rise of third world countries in the global economy necessitated regional cooperation on various economic issues in order to protect domestic markets, increase FDI and market share, increase competition and efficiency etc. These are reflected in regional free/preferential trade agreements, customs unions, currency unions etc. Examples: MERCOSUR, NAFTA, TPP, EU, ASEAN FTA etc.
Security – Rise of fundamentalism, extremism, and radicalism necessitated regional security treaties. Examples: CSTO, ANZUS, SCO etc.
Environment & Nature protection – Protection of nature’s elements sometimes fall under the common responsibility of two or more nations. For example, rivers, endangered animals, forests, cleaning ocean pollutioin etc. Examples, Mekong-Ganga Cooperation.
Various other reasons include: energy security, cultural, ethnic, religious affinities, military/arms cooperation, ideological and political groupings, drug trafficking/smuggling etc.
Most of these regional organizations cover multiple aspects in cooperation. For example, GCC is a political and economic union.
Relevance of International Organizations – In a globalized world, there are several issues which are common to all the nations. For example, Climate Change, refugee crisis, internet, global security, international trade and finance. These issues need cooperation of all the nations at global level. They cannot be solved either in isolation or by regional cooperation.
Q.3) ‘Rising humanitarian crisis and afflictions on people pose a serious question on working of international organizations in the name of Human Rights Organizations’. In the light of the statement, critically discuss the role of United Nations Human Rights Commission (UNHRC) and other similar organizations. Do you think such organizations have proved inefficient?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Amruth Kumar
Ans) World is facing one of the worst refugee crisis since World war 2, More than 10 million people are displaced due to wars and famine in Somalia, Syria, Afghanistan etc.
Role of UNHRC and other organizations in tackling the Humanitarian crisis
1) They publish reports on all the events, estimate the loss of life, property and blame the wrong doings and bring war criminals to justice
2) they have played crucial role to make people aware of the damages due to war, it can act as both deterrent for war and help to attract funds for the needy.
3) It condemned Israel for bombing Gaza, UN GA passed the resolution condemning Israel. It a huge success as USA was supporting Israel. It clearly indicates the impact of the report.
4) Reports are unbiased (atleast less bias), reports prepared by the host countries are always subjected to bias.
Limitations of the Organization
1) There actions are after the event, they have limited power to prevent a crisis.
2) Despite of reports world powers have failed to solve the issues of Syria, Israel-Palestine and people continue to live in inhumane conditions.
3) Insufficient funds and effective utilization
Mandate of the organization is to show the world the crisis and force them to come to a solution. But the final button of solution always lies with political masters who’s decisions influenced by their personal growth, alliance, domestic situation etc. Better funds, a dedicated peace keeping force with can help to reduce the impact of crisis.
Q.4) The Security Council faces far more fundamental problems than the persistence of the veto. Comment.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Annapurna Garg
Ans) The United Nations security council has been lately in news for many of it limitations. The UNSC reforms have been under consideration since 1992.
Central to these reforms is the issue of veto power. Veto powers to the five contries gives them assymetry all powers and leads to stalling of decisions very often. For example, U.S. vetoed the decision to term Israeli settlement in West Bank illegal despite consensus in General Assembly. Thus geopolitical gains makes the veto power questionable. This should either be done away with or extended to other deserving countries as well.
Besides there are other problems as well:
Representation is highly skewed with no representation from Africa, South America and very less representation from Asia.
It still represents 1945 world order, despite major shifts thereafter. Considertions such as economy, population size, human and monetary contributions to UN are barely visible in it composition.
General assembly is subordinated to UNSC, despite having broader representation.
UNSC seem to be incapable of preventing unilateral military action like what US did in in Iraq in 2003.
Present crisis in Middle East shows its failure to contain the rise of extremists tendencies. For example rise of IS and its continuing advance.
This shows the urgency and inevitability of UNSC reforms on a serious note. Present stalemate shows is due to unwillingness of P5 to dilute their own position. It’s important to resolve this stagnancy by greater push by the countries demanding reform and maturity on part of P5.
Q.5) “Created in 1945, the UNSC still reflects the international power relation that was at the end of Second World War”. Critically comment.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Manikanta Vasu
Ans) In 1945, after the end of the world war 2 ,United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has been established with the objective of maintaining global peace.
Even after the 70 years of its establishment UNSC reflects the world power relation at the time of the end of WW2. This can be seen because
– There is no change in its structure since the WW2, as the same powerful countries are continued to be the only powerful nations in UNSC.
– Many major economies like Germany and Japan were not accorded permanent membership till now just because of the reason that they are the losers in WW2.
– Many regional organisations witnessing the changed global geopolitical power equations but they were not get due attention in the UNSC.
– There are emerging economies in the world like India and Brazil which can have the capability of altering the power equations. This was not considered at UNSC.
However, this itself not showing that UNSC is completely as a body reflecting WW2 power relations.
– UNSC offers temporary membership to 10 countries so that changed global relations can be discussed at its forum.
– The strong demand from G4 countries to expand the council has got attention and recently UNSC accepts an agenda to discuss the issue of UNSC reforms.
The UNSC should realize the changed global power relations so that the effectiveness of UNSC will improve. P5 nations also should understand the importance of making UNSC relevant to contemporary period.