Q.1) What were the social reforms carried out by Pandit Nehru between 1947 and 1964?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Cosviny
Ans) The years from 1947 to 1964 were of high hopes, aspirations and and optimism. The reforms though taken in all arenas of life viz. social ,political, administrative and economic. The major social reform are enumerated as:-
Rooting of Electoral process and establishment of democratic institutions.- First of all entrenchment of Democracy took giant leap with election held in 1951-52.
Socialistic patter of Society was made conception of Second and third plan. under Social Pattern of Society land reforms were brought to bring equality in land distribution.
Hindu Code(monogamy,right of divorce to both gender, raised age of consent of marriage, right to maintenance and inherit property by women) and Special marriage act , Prohibition of Dowry ,1961 were enacted though UCC was remained in DPSP only.
Anti untouchability law in 1955 making the practice of untouchability punishable and a cognizable offence. other necessary measure were taken to raise the status of SC’s and ST’s. Special facilities in the form of scholarships, hostels, accommodation,loans, housing ,healthcare and legal aid were provided.
Community development programme and Panchayati raj brought in for rural capacity building and development but both remained less effective.
The Lacunae in the social reform carried were unaddressing of the structural inequality in rural masses in which dominant rural classes and newly evolved Bureaucrats could not become agent of social transformation.
The dominated class were quite powerless ,unaware ,uneducated to put reform in immediate practice.
Q.2) Write a critique on the Labour Legislations and Land Reforms executed until the Shastri rule.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Machiavelli
Ans) Labor force and pfarmers were the one that guided india to development after independence . Government too was enthusiastic in supporting them at various fronts . some of the labour legislations were :
a) Industrial Disputes Act 1947.: the act provided for the prior permission of the government before firing a worker , one of the most controversial act- though ensured security for workers , unnecessary delay is conspicuous .
b) Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952 : social safety to workers as provident fund . employer and employee contribute equally and acts as a pension fund .
c) minimum wages act 1948 : though provide for minimum wages for number of sectors , left a large number out of its ambit . also allowing state to set wages , left still a lot of scope for low wages.
similarly land reforms were executed to help farmers and enforce socialist goals of the country :
a) Zamindari abolition bills :
Zamindari abolition bill in various states introduced in 1949 to to give rights to tenants but lack of land records , eviction of tenant by land owner made its implementation ineffective
b) Tenancy reform : to provide security of tenure as well as reduction of rents the tenancy reforms bills were introduced in states. but ‘personal cultivation ‘ clause and ceiling for acquisition left lot of scope for manipulation.
c) land ceiling legislations : though legislations were passed by 1961 in most states the progress was really slow . states fixed very high limit for holdings , transferring lands to relatives, bogus cooperatives etc were setback to the government intentions.
Though Government come up with plethora of legislations ,the inherent loop holes and poor implementation , lack of political will on parts of states left the legislations in want of action.
Q.3) What led to the Caste Movements in Western and Southern India? How did it affect the local socio-political life of the region?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Tom_Dwan
Ans) Causes of caste movements in western and southern India
Education among lower and immediate castes led to their raising of voice against Brahminical domination.
Sanskritization ,a process by which lower caste borrows customs,manners and taboos from higher caste ,led to these movements.examples Lingayat of Karnataka and the Marathas.
Prevalent economic inequality caused social economic stratification.
Post independence, Indian govt. recognised historically discriminated communities which led to their further consolidation and awareness of their right.
In south India the Brahmins took more advantage of modern educational and employment opportunities than the upper non-Brahmin castes, secured government jobs, and thus tried to maintain Brahmin preponderance in government service.
The upper-caste non-Brahmins of Tamil Nadu did not believe in Sanskritization. They challenged the higher status of the Brahmins.The non Brahmins preferred to consider themselves Dravidians, i.e., natives of the area, and considered Brahmins alien intruder.
Effects on local socio-political life of the region
In Maharashtra , rich peasant non-Brahmin elite with strong roots in villages and cooperatives swept Brahmin intellegenstia from political power.
The non Brahmins of Tamil Nadu demanded a separate state for the Dravidians.
Some of the backward or non-Brahmin castes in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu formed political party to capture political power.
The demands for reservation in government jobs and educational institutions for the backward castes began to be raised repeatedly in the post-independence period.example- currently Patidar in Gujarat.
Rise in number of caste federations which plays role in electoral politics. Example – Kothari of Gujarat.
Q.4) Bring out some positive and negative social consequences of Green Revolution. How has the GR changed the rural social structure?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Vidhu
Ans) Green Revolution was an important milestone in the history of India which transformed India from a food deficient , famines stricken country to a foodgrains surplus nation.
The positive social consequences of green revolution are:
removal of the dominance of intermediaries and zamindars
increased the income of the farmers which led to better standard of living
mechanization in agriculture encourage education of children and women
farmer moved on from rudimentary farming methods to scientific ones
increased the importance and prestige of farmers in India
reduced rural to urban migration
excess foodgrains was able to feed and sustain the migrants from east Pakistan
created scope for new large scale agro-based industries
The negatives were:
Benefitted mainly rich and resourceful farmers. This created a wider rich poor divide
Excessive usage of chemicals reduced the fertility of land which led to crop loss leading to farmer suicides.
Mechanization led to reduction in employment
Over exploitation of water led to shortages and in turn social-political conflicts
Created large scale regional disparity in India
The changes in rural structure are:
Farmers with increased income could help in rural development and panchyati institution
Migration from changed the demography of villages. Men moved out women left
Changes in family structure
Consumerism increased in the villages
Education encouraged occupations other than agriculture for youth.
Q.5) Critically discuss the effects of the Kargil Conflict and its repercussions on the Indo-Pakistan relations. How did the international community react to it?
The Top Asnwer for this Question is witten by – Vardan Maheswari
Ans) Kargil Conflict was a armed clash between India and Paksitani backed militants due to their intrusion in the Indian territory of Kargil district.
-EFFECTS OF KARGIL CONFLICT
a)DEVELOPMENT OF IRNSS- Since India was denied any support of any foreign navigation systems during the conflict, a need for country’s own navigation system was felt in which took the form of Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System.
b)INCREASE IN DEFENSE BUDGET-The very next budget after the war increased the financial allocations to the defense sector.
c)EXPOSED THE FAILURE OF INTELLIGENCE-The RAW was heavily criticized for its inability to predict any intrusion and no. of infiltrators.
d)PROXY WAR-From then, Pakistan has been allegedly avoiding direct conflicts form India but increased proxy attacks.
-REPERCUSSIONS ON INDO-PAK RELATIONS
a)Trade, commerce ties of the countries took a backseat after the conflict.
b)Kashmir issue got a new rejuvenation after the conflict
c)FEAR OF NUCLEAR THRESHOLD arose between both the countries.
-REACTION OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
a)G8 NATIONS supported India and condemned the Pakistani action.
b)China , a long time ally of Pakistan, insisted on moving into pre-conflict positions and solve border disputes amicably.