Q.1) What are the short term and long term causes of sea level change. What effects will sea level change have on the world?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Wizard
Ans) Sea level is a not a static level. It changes continuously. Following are the reason for short term change in sea level:-
1. Tides due to gravitational attraction of sun and moon and centrifugal forces.
2. Storm surge due to passing of cyclones.
3. Excessive rainfall and flooding .
Following are the reason for long term sea level change.
1. Global warming and melting of polar and mountain ice which causes increase in sea level.
2. Cyclic ice ages which causes decrease of sea levels.
Following are the effect of rising sea level.
1. Submergence of low lying coastal regions like Bangladesh and island nations Maldives.
2. Higher storm surge which will cause flooding of coastal areas.
3. Destruction of coastal ecosystem and wildlife.
4. Contamination of drinking water aquafer in coastal area making it unsuitable to drink
5. Intrusion of sea water in farmland will make it unsuitable for farming
Sea level change is a real danger to the world. It has risen about 7 inches in last 100 years. Even if Global warming stops, sea level will keep rising for number of positive feedback loops initiated by it. We need to be prepared for sea level rise.
Q.2) What are the principal causes of coral bleaching. Why we should be concerned about it? Discuss.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Noboundriz
Ans) Decoloring of corals because of loss of symbiotic relationship between corals and zooxanthalle is known as coral bleaching. Corals loose their vivid corals and become pale.
Causes of coral bleaching are
1. Global warming-corals are sensitive to temperature rise
2. ocean acidification – corals fail to form carbonate shells and symbiotic relation will be lost
3. deforestation leads to erosion and silting of corals. corals are equally sensitive to mud and expel zooxanthalle under any stress factor
4. coral mining for making bricks etc destroy corals
5. unsustainable fishing methods like cyanide fishing, blasting, trawlers etc disturb the coral ecology
6. unsustainable ecotourism is also the cause-ex great barrier reef
1. corals are rain forests of oceans and support the entire food chain of oceans.
2. Destruction of corals lead to low fish catch which affects livelihood of fishermen.
3. corals will also protect coasts from erosion and tsunamis their absence will be bad sign for coastal regions.
4. Bio diversity of oceans will be reduced.
so coral bleaching not only disturbs corals aesthetically but also impacts socio-economic condition of vulnerable sections and hence it should be stopped by following measures like reducing carbon foot print, sustainable fishing and sustainable eco-tourism.
Q.3) Write a note on the marine resources of the Indian ocean. What is their importance for India?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Draconian
Ans) As the third-largest body of water in the world, and containing vital sea lanes that help feed some of Asia’s largest economies, the importance of the Indian Ocean has long been clear.
–More than 80 percent of the world’s seaborne trade in oil transits through the sea lanes of Indian Ocean.Also The monsoon wind in the Indian Ocean is a boon to the sailing ships to reach overseas countries
–Tides in Indian ocean during rise and fall, release a lot of energy by striking against the shore and This can be used to operate a turbine and produce electricity.like in Sundarban,
–Indian Ocean which extends from African coast to West Asia, South Asia and South East Asia and touches Australia is a primary focus of India’s foreign policy. for example Look East policy, Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation, BIMSTEC and Gaga-Mekong Cooperation etc.
–Minerals derived from the shelves include Petroleum gas,shale gas, Magnesium, Sulphur, Iron, Gold, Silver, Poly-metallic nodules of copper zinc etc. These are valuable for the industrial usage
— Its Southern coast support several varieties of sea weeds which have been tremendous potential to be used in industries, human & agriculture activities.and are also rich in Vitamins.it is also vital for the production of Sea Salt in coastal areas which makes India is 3rd largest producer in the world
–its major portion of the tropical coasts is covered with mangrove which act to stabilize the land along the coastal margin and are important breeding and nursery grounds for offshore species.
To envisage the the integration of Ocean Economy through Blue Economy it is critically important to identify its potential by not focusing on just on Security and Growth on Sustainability and Growth for All in the Region.
Q.4) Explain the causes and consequences of desertification in the Sahel region. How this problem can be addressed?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Saurabh Sharma
Ans) Sahel is a semi-arid region in Africa that lies between northern Sahara desert and Southern Sudanian Savanna grasslands. The region is witnessing rapid desertification.
Climate change has been projected to affect sub-sahara region in Africa the most. Irregular and changing pattern of rainfall is contributing to desertification.
Immigration due to civil wars in adjoining regions and high population growth rate has resulted into immense population pressure in the region. The demand for fuel and water has led to massive deforestation.
Besides, clearing natural vegetation for agriculture is also quite prevalent.
The land being low in fertility is abandoned after 2-3 cropping seasons to gain fertility. But wind erosion erodes the loose soil and convert it into badland.
Most of the nomadic tribes of Sahara and this region are cattle rearing. That makes overgrazing ubiquitous .
Desertification has led the area and its people into a self propelling vicious circle of poverty and under-development. Increasing population pressure is leading to more resource crunch and desertification and the later leading to further deprivation.
HOW CAN IT BE ADDRESSED?
Promote sustainable farming and rearing practices among the people.
Arrest desertification by water conservative efforts etc
High Order Thinking
Q.1) Cooperative federalism is not only required for the smooth governance of the country but also imperative for pursuing India’s relationship with the immediate neighbors. Examinethe statement in light of the recently concluded land boundary agreement with Bangladeshand the Teesta river water sharing agreement.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Petyr Baelish
Ans) Strengthening of Infian federal structure has intensified in past few decades. The dominance of regional polical parties in states as well as their role in forming government at centre has become crucial. However, Indias foreign relations especially its neighbourhood policy remains to still be formulated without any institutionalised mechanism to consider states’ views . Since many states share international border with our neighbouring countries and have linguistic and cultural linkages, they need to be involved in policies that affect relations between India and our neighbours.
The Land boundary agreement betwen India and Bangladesh involved exchange of enclaves in thestates of westBengal, Assam and few other north eastern states. Similarly Teesta water sharing involve subtatial water being shared with Bangladesh. Water and land being scarce resource and state government having mandate to secure rights of the people of the state, should be involved to agree upon any agreement signed between India and Bangladesh. While the Land Boundary Agreement has been concluded successfully because of cooperative federal practice of involving states in key decision making, the lack of consensus among states and between the centre is making Teesta water sharing dificult ot agree.
When foriegn policy gets affected by regional politics , image of India gets affected. We need to speak in a single voice. The instituionalised mechanism for formulating our foreign policy involving states is need of the hour. an informal grouping of centre and states with international borders be set up to formulate neighbourhood policies or centre state council under art.263 be strengthened by including foreign policy formulations in it. This would help build an effective neighbourhood policy.
Q.2) Irreversible miscarriage of justice in cases involving death penalty is one of the principal arguments put forward against capital punishment in India. Keeping in mind the dismal record of the judiciary in maintaining consistency in death penalty jurisprudence, do you think the time is ripe to abolish capital punishment in India? Examine.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – The Rock
Ans) Art 21 of constitution provides that No person shall be deprived of his life , except under procedure established by law . However , stealthy killings of Afzal Guru and Ajmal Kasab and delay in execution of Yakub Menon has raised a debate regarding abolition of capital punishment
Arguments for capital punishment
1. Capital punishment is exercised in rarest of rare cases , as remarked by SC in Bachan Singh case
2. Due process of law and provisions to challenge the judgement is provided by petitions
3. Executive clemency by pardon, remission, etc is allowed under Art 72 of Constiution
4. Required to maintain security, unity and integrity of nation
1. Two wrongs do not compensate each other
2. Right to life is a universal and unconditional
3. Capital punishment can induce a criminal to kill his victim , thus witness
4. It is irreversible , thus cannot be a part of an error prone judicial system
5. Delay in disposal of cases can lead to psychological stress to individual and family , as remarked in Shatrughan Chauhan case .
6. No data to correlate death penalty and deterrence
Law commission recommendations of death penalty only in terror related cases can be considered in this regard. Also , restorative justice which provides for transformation of criminal into responsible citizens should be ensured, along with provisions of judicial and policing reforms. This will help in reducing death penalty while upholding India’s security, unity and integrity.
Q.3) Severe unemployment and dangerous levels of drug abuse in the bordering states are major irritants to our border security apparatus. Do you agree? Analyse.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Wizard
Ans) India’s geographical location is between International opium producing areas of golden triangle and golden crescent.
Golden triangle includes northern Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. This area borders India’s north east states. India Myanmar border is unfenced. Drug trafficking is one of the major financial tools of NE insurgents. Lack of industrial development and unemployment in the border states
is luring young people into drug abuse.
In Punjab drug abuse has reached a very serious level. Unlike the global trend of drug abuse which engulfs urban youth, In Punjab even rural youths are drawn into drug abuse. Lack of industrial development, mechanizarion of farm and use of migrant labours have resulted into large scale unemployment in Punjab. With geographical proximity with golden crescent ( Afganistan, Pakistan and Iran) and nexus of politicians, businessman etc have made this racket a serious issue.
Drug abuse is major irritant to border security apparatus as
1. It finance insurgent groups.
2. It leads to nexus of organized crime, terrorists and politicians which is hard to crack.
3. It increases smuggling of drug through tunnels and other channel in border areas.
4. Drugs money is used for money laundering.
Drug abuse is a serious issue. It is wasting our precious human resource and luring them into anti social action. It involves terrorists, insurgents, organized crimes and petty politician. It is a sheer wastage of our national wealth. Hence it poses a serious threat to our security apparatus.