To reduce by 2030, the emission intensity of the GDP by 32 to 35 per cent from 2005 levels
To generate about 40 per cent of electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 such as nuclear, solar, wind, biomass and biogas.
India has also announced setting up of International Solar Alliance to boost solar energy in the developing countries. All the countries within the two tropics (Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) will become part of this. Headquarters will be in India.
India stood by its long term demand of “Common But Differentiated Responsibility” which should form the basis for any climate change agreement.
Our PM quoted Gandhi and said that there is enough for every body’s need but not greed. He suggested that the way Gandhi lived is a role model for changing our life styles.
These commitments from India are applauded by all quarters from across the globe and India is taking a leadership role in climate change negotiations.
The developed countries, which constitute about 20% of the world’s population, occupy more carbon space and in their life styles they use aggressive energy resources leading to huge emissions of GHGs, which is the main cause for global warming. Despite this, they are reluctant to come forward and change their life styles to low carbon usage.
Also, there is the issue of financing the developing countries to help mitigate and adapt to climate change. The developed countries are harping on the recently released OECD report which said that there was a considerable progress in the climate finance to the developing countries from the developed countries. India raised questions about the report. Moreover, developed countries are wary of technology transfer to developing countries to adapt to climate change.
The other contentious issue at the climate conference was the target of global temperature rise that should be capped. The scientific figure which has been given by the IPCC is 2 degree Centigrade by the end of this century compared to pre industry levels. The island nations and least developed nations wanted it to be capped at 1.5 degree centigrade. They say, even if all the INDC’s of all the countries are achieved, still the global temperature rise cannot be arrested to below 2 degree Centigrade. Moreover, there are questions about who will review and assess the INDC’s.
If the upper limits of global temperature rise were to be capped at 1.5 degree centigrade, then the developing countries, which constitute about 80% of the world’s population, would lose their legitimate carbon space. India, for example, has roughly 30% of population below the poverty line. It cannot have on itself a restrictive energy utilization regime if it has to bring its poor population out of poverty. There must be climate justice – funding, technology transfer, change in life styles, and differentiation in taking responsibility.