Q.1) Apartheid was a system of racial segregation in South Africa. How was it different from racial persecution in USA ? Discuss the role of Nelson Mandela and his approach in fight against apartheid.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Adityaka
Ans) Apartheid was a system of racial segregation in South Africa backed by the laws of the land. This form of racial discrimination was not very different from racial discrimination in the USA.
– Racial discrimination was institutionalized with laws such as the Black Codes in America and various property and area inhabitation laws in South Africa.
– There was a clear segregation in seating arrangements in public places. Theaters, buses, parks, schools and universities and separate coaches in trains.
However, major differences were;
– South Africa, under the Apartheid regime, had more than 80% of colored population . Therefore, a white minority had concentrated upon itself all the political and financial power. This was not the case in America, where people of African origin were mostly concentrated in the southern states
– The colored majority in South Africa were completely disenfranchised until late 1980s. African Americans had the right to vote, though it was limited as poll taxes were levied upon them.
Nelson Mandela was part of the African National Congress. Before serving a jail sentence for 26 years, he was part of the Army to fight the Apartheid regime. After the ban on the ANC was lifted, Nelson Mandela took part in peaceful negotiations in dismantling the Apartheid regime. His leadership qualities and his ability to put past differences aside won the hearts of whites and blacks alike making him the first African president.
Q.2) The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo. Discuss the chain of events which led to “First Oil Shock” in 1973. What were its short term and long term effects on world politics ?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Cosviny
Ans) After formation in 1960 the OPEC became a unified group till 1970. In 1971, end of Bretton wood accord happened in which the value of dollar was left afloat otherwise which was pegged to Gold exchange. The developed countries in response increased their reserves. The value of Dollar depreciated in International market. Oil producing countries real income decreased. On the other, Syria and Egypt launched a attack on Israeli settlements. American Emergency aid to Israel in Yom Kippur war against Egypt roused the OPEC sentiments. OPEC proclaimed an oil embargo which raised the prices of oil from $3 per barrel to $12 per barrel.
Though the embargo lifted in early 1974 but the high prices remained there.
Short term effects:-
1. The prices of the capital goods ,arms and related hardware rose but not to the extent of Oil.
2. Disturbed middle east stability and increased expenditure on arms and spread of Extremism.
3. The competitive position of Dollar weakened in world Market
4. new law related to Energy conservation came in developed world.
Long term effects:-
1. Petroleum Oil alternative like Biodiesel, other unconventional energy sources like Nuclear and shale gas etc. tried and tested by both developing and developed world.
2. New reserves of oil were being searched like exploration in North sea.
3. Most of the countries build oil reserves to absorb supply shocks of oil.
4. Assault on sea again to maintain hegemony on sea lanes of communication
5. Internationl relations of US and Third World worsened.
6. Automobile Industry spent a lot to make usage of fuel efficient in decades to come.
Q.3) How was India’s approach towards Industrialisation after independence, different from China’s. Do you think adopting China’s approach would have helped India? Analyse.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – SBT57
Q.1) With the budgetary allocations for the social sector going down and increased devolution of finances to the states, there is a need to rethink the roadmap for improving the key socio-economic indices. Do you agree? Examine in light of the schemes including the centrally sponsored schemes being given lesser share of allocations in the last budget.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Another Brick In The Wall
Ans) The Fourteenth Finance Commission (FFC ) recommended for 42% of shares for states from the divisive pool of taxes as well as 2.87 lakh crores for Panchayats and Urban Local Bodies.
It has solved the long persistent demand of states to let them control the funds allocated to them. The “one size fits all” mindset was being pursued through the centrally sponsored schemes. The eventual decrease of CSS from about 150 to less than 50 is a big step in these directions. Moreover when centre is eft with less money after the FFC recommendations, it makes sense to cut on CSS.
But these CSS were providing funds into crucial socio-economic sectors like health, education and food. Trusting states to manage these with funds as per FCC will be wrong as all states are not at equal footing. States like Gujrat and Maharashtra will far better manage it as compared to Bihar and Jharkhand. This will eventually lead to uneven development which already has costed India in problems of militancy and Naxalism.
It is in this context that the indices for measuring development need to be relooked and some regulation framework is required to bring parity to development of states without harming their autonomy.
Q.2) The recently enacted Foreign Income and Assets (Imposition of Tax) Act, 2015 can act as a deterrent against future evasions but as far as bringing back the money stashed abroad is concerned, it has it’s set of limitations. Identify and discuss those limitations. Also suggest a roadmap that should be pursued in dealing with the menace of black money.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Machiaveli
Q.3) In recent years, the fourth estate of the Indian democratic polity has been alleged to have indulged in paid news, news trading and performing the role of ideological mouthpiece. Do you think media ethics is at it’s all time low in India? Is there a need to have a more effective regulatory framework to curb unfair practices in media? Critically analyse.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Another Brick In The Wall
Ans) Free media is considered a necessary component in functioning democracy. Autonomous media is an effective means of expression and showing dissent. However in recent times the blame on media has been that it has been indulged in pursuing some vested interests. Some of the instances which reveal the lowered ethical standards of media are :-
1) Reporting the disaster hit areas with political agenda and filing words in miuth of victims without empathizing with them.
2) Seeking statements of controversial figures to further fuel the controversy.
3) Skewed Exit polls to favour a particular party.
4) Unnecessarily twisting the statements of individuals to make them BREAKING NEWS.
However the regulation of media is a very contentious issue. Any regulation should be internal so that the independence of media is maintained at all cost. The Press Council of India is an institution that electronic media should be inspired from to regulate themselves. Also the ethical courses in journalism courses be introduced to better sensitize the reporters. Exemplary punishments should be set by speedily processing the cases against media to provide enough deterrence.
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