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Think Learn & Perform (TLP): GS Mains Synopsis [Day 93]

  • December 7, 2015
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Think and Learn, TLP Mains 2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
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TLP: GS Mains Synopsis [Day 93]

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Q.1) The land boundary agreement concluded between India and Bangladesh will go a long way in addressing the issues of border security, illegal migration and drugs and arms trafficking. Do you agree? Also discuss the significance of this agreement in bringing about development to the states adjoining Bangladesh.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Rahul Agarwal

 

Ans) Indian parliament had recently ratified the landmark land boundary agreement which have paved the way for swap of adversely located enclaves on either side of India-Bangladesh border. It is tipped to be of great significance as:

 

A. It would help in checking illegal migration, with easy identification of nationalities of people.

B. With the exchange of enclaves, Indian government can now put fencing on its side of borders to check infiltration of unscrupulous elements and strengthen its security.

C. This would also help in providing political, social and economic rights to the inhabitants of enclaves who were virtually rendered stateless.

But, Still there are several challenges in fool-proofing of India-Bangladesh Border:

A. Poor demarcation, with rivers and forests , makes patrolling extremely difficult in border areas. 

B. Similar ethnicity of people across the border, makes it hard to differentiate among the people.

C. Rackets of drug smuggling, cattle smuggling work in cohorts to secure illegal entry into Indian Territory.

D. There is also flux of refugee escaping religious persecution across the border.

 

Therefore, Land boundary agreement is positive step in strengthening our border, but still high vigilance need to be shown at the border.

Land boundary agreement would also enable states to extend state services of education, healthcare and other welfare activities to people of these enclaves, which they were restricted to provide due to nationality issue. Also, this agreement paves the way of land acquisition, installation of industries etc, which would result in growth and development of these states. Therefore, Land boundary agreement is supposed to usher new growth and developmental activities in border areas. 


Q.2) The present draft of the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Bill has seen intense public and parliamentary debate. What are the contentious provisions of this bill? Discuss the ways in which consumer protection and welfare can be promoted in the real estate sector.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Rahul Agarwal

 

Ans) With the increasing incidents of irregularities in real estate sector, like duping people of money, faulty and delayed construction, change in the housing plan, government is looking towards bring a real estate regulator through, Real estate (regulations and development) bill. Some of the provisions of bill are:

 

A. Builder has to publish the details of plans, approvals, list of promoter in his website prior to floating of project

B. All the approvals should be in place, before commencing the sale of residential blocks

C. For major alterations in construction plan, approval of 2/3rd of customers would be required

D. 50% of the money would be kept in escrow account with banks, as a security for time bound construction and possession of houses.

E. Setting up of regulatory and appellate body for settling disputes.

 

But, there are many contentions placed against the provisions of bill:

A. The earlier 70% amount in escrow account has been watered down to 50%

B. Housing plans have been defined in terms of carpet area, rather than the built up area, which may lead to confusion

C. Builders are allowed to do minor alterations without need of approval. A major alteration in design plan could be brought by series of minor alterations.

 

With rising property costs, many people tend to invest their life time savings in purchasing houses, and thus consumer protection and welfare is paramount in the sector. The bill needs to be strengthened by:

A. Proper definition of carpet area, minor and major alteration etc.

B. Reducing chances of conflict of interest in regulator by disallowing his further employment.

C. Statutory provision for customer’s body to oversee the construction and designing of project.

D. Fast and speedier resolution of grievances. 


Q.3) The demand for criminalizing marital rape has come from various social quarters, notably women activists. It is often argued however, that the institution of marriage is so sacred and sacrosanct to the Indian society that the decision to criminalize marital rape can be counterproductive and it won’t make much of a difference. What do you think? Discuss.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Sepoy No 1446

 

Ans) Marital rape is demonstaration of inhumanity,insensituvity and lack of trust,belief and resepect in a marraige,foundation of which are based on understanding and mutual resepct. Indian society being patriarchal and male dominated is the biggest reason for this silent crime. A marriage doensn’t give licence to brutality and there has been demand from various quarters to recognise marital rape as a criminal offence.

 

However,like all other issues this has also been critized by some.

Major arugments are:

1. It will foster distrust in married couple,further creating separation and emotional disconnect.

2.Will weaken marriage as an institution.

3. Can be misued by disgruntling wives against their husband

4. Even if it is given legal recognition,it is very hard to implement due to estblished social pattern and norms of expected bahaviour.

 

These areguments are a camaflouge to hide the hidden demons.

1. Marital rape itslef creates emotional disconnect

2. Its is brutal and goes aganist Article 21:right to live a dignified life. Even preamble of constitution mentions dignity of individual as a basic right.

3. established patterns act as a discouragement is the basic reason why we need such a legsialtion.

“Mental trauma” has rightly been recognised as a form of violence in prevention of domestic violence act,2005. Criminalizing marital rape will be an extension of that act and will go a long way in bringing gender eqaility and women empowerment. 


Q.4) Issues pertaining to governance, funding, institutional oversight and sustainability are the major stumbling blocks in the path of creating 100 smart cities. What are these issues? Discuss. Also suggest ways that can truly impart smartness to the urban landscape in India.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Rahul Agarwal

Ans) India is witnessing rapid urbanization, and about 40% of population and 2/3rd of Indian GDP is expected to come from urban areas in coming decade. In this context, Union government has initiated an ambitious scheme of creating 100 smart cities within 5 Years. Though novel in approach, there are certain challenges in its implementation: 

A. Funding: Central government has designed the scheme as a centrally sponsored scheme, with committing 20000 crores for 5 years. State governments are expected to provide matching contributions, while municipal and local authorities are also to raise finds by raising bonds etc. The money committed by government is paltry, and there are doubts about states capacity to borrow. Obtaining funding from multilateral institutions would be a challenge.

B. Governance: Smart cities are envisaged to be implemented by creation of special purpose vehicle (SPV) between public and private sector. With, poor prognosis of PPP projects and controversies in land acquisition,labor laws etc, governance would prove to be a challenge for implementation.

C. Sustainability: Smart cities should be self-sustainable both financially and institutionally for their sustenance. But given the general reluctance of public to pay for public services and populist political measures, Sustainability of project is also in doubt.

 

Also, there is no clear definition about the nature of smartness of a city. Broadly, it should reflect the developmental nature of society, willingness of people to change and reform and level of aspirations. Some of the contours of smartness could be:

A. Physical Infrastructure: Sanitation, public transport, waste disposal

B. Social Infrastructure: Inclusiveness, affordable housing, green belts and parks

C. Governance Infrastructure: e-delivery of services, energy efficient construction and processes 


Q.5) There are several irritants in Indo-China relations that include the ongoing border dispute, China’s role in Pakistan, Indian role in the Pacific etc. However, the evolution of Indo-China relations in the past few years has shown how economy can deal with politics. What do you understand by this statement? Elucidate.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Rahul Agarwal

 

Ans) India and china share a unique contrasting relationship of political hostility and economic integration. 1962 war casts a historical show over relations:

A. Border skirmishes are still prevalent in western Ladakh sector and Eastern Arunachal Pradesh sector, with both countries claiming their territories.

B. China has always shared a warm relationship with Pakistan by supporting it on international forums and by supply of weapons, technologies and investment. Recent proposal to build china Pakistan economic corridor, passes through Pak-occupied Kashmir, to which India has raised its concerns.

C. South China sea and western pacific ocean is becoming a global theatre of geo-political strategies. India’s investments in Vietnam through ONGC, its partnership with US and Japan has irked china.

 

But, keeping political hostilities aside, the economic engagements between the countries are strong more than ever:

A. China is the largest trading partner of India

B. Chinese companies have been investing in electronics and infrastructure in India

C. Development of cities on sister cities concept ( eg Kolkata –Kunming)

D. Development of BCIM corridor for convenient vehicular movement.

E. Launching of BRICS bank and AIIB, by close collaboration between two countries

F. Presence of India’s MNCs in China in services sector eg IT firms.

 

In-fact, it could be said that the strength of economic ties have played a key role in preventing the escalation of political conflicts between the two regions. Both countries are seen as engines of world growth. The frequent meetings of top most leadership in last year or so, has redefined the strength of relationship between two countries.

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