IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [12th February]: UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]: Synopsis

  • February 15, 2016
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IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [12th February]: UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]: Synopsis


1. Can freedom of speech and expression be an excuse to demonstrate support and garner sympathies for terror master minds held guilty by the court of law? Critically examine


Introduction must contain reference to art 19(1) and 19(2)

Can also include a mention of UN Declaration of Human Rights

So maintaining balance between rights of convict and following the law

Why is it bad?

  • The crimes were carried out against the state challenging the sovereignty
  • The terrorists killed innocent people ,who deserve justice
  • Encourages secessionist tendencies
  • Anti national propaganda by insurgent and terrorist groups
  • Undermines the authority of popular institutions ,disrespects the judiciary
  • Parties trying to gain political mileage, vote bank politics
  • Propagates hatred between different sections of society
  • Morale of defense and police forces is lowered


What needs to be done?

1) Making the whole judicial process from police investigation to trial and conviction transparency has to be brought

2) Government should not try over regulation in the garb of protecting sovereignty and public order

3) Laws like UAPA, AFSPA have to be made more responsive. Police and defence personnel who commit heinous crimes should not go scot-free

4) Judiciary must become more tolerant and acceptable towards constructive criticism; every criticism should not be seen as contempt

Best answer: HEIDI

Freedom of speech and expression (Article 19) is not absolute. If this freedom is used to support the terrorist ideology and unlawful activities of a legally convicted anti nationals, it is against the national interest.

Article 19 and interest of public order should be finely balanced (124 A, IT act). sympathizing with terrorists is disturbing because,

  • Frontal organizations of extremists can misuse this trend by radicalizing and brainwashing the public and get support (Maoists)
  • The credibility of the court proceedings will be lost, leading to armed rebellions (Naxalism)
  • Law and order will be challenged, leading to anarchy (Srikakulam, Naxalbari)

However if there any human right violations happened, expression of sympathy for justice to be delivered is not illegal or contempt of court. Certain laws (AFSPA, UAPA) are blamed to be draconian. The trend of showing sympathy is mainly because,

  • Misuse of UAPA resulting innocents being captivated as under trials for years – “Disguised aberration of law in the cloth of uniform” (Kerala HC in Shyam Balakrishnan case)
  • AFSPA has been criticized because of fake encounters in J&K and NE (“protectors become aggressors”- SC)
  • Mass arrests, accusing association with terrorists groups (SIMI, IM). SC rejected the theory of ‘guilty of association’ in Dr Raneef’s case in Kerala.

Freedom of speech and expression is to be protected unless national security and public interest are under threat

2. Integrating Dalits into Hindu society without upsetting the caste system is a far cry from Ambedkar’s call for annihilation of caste. Discuss.


Part 1

  1. Historical perspective: explain what caste is and who dalits are.
  2. Sociological perspective: briefly mention atrocities brunt by dalits throughout history. Talk about the contribution of national leaders to their upliftment.
  3. Constitutional perspective: articles in and various other acts in the constitution.
  4. Political perspective: vote bank politics
  5. Economical perspective: write about the confined jobs they are forced to perform like manual scavenging.  Mention their still prevalent poor economical conditions. You may also talk about the creamy layer.

Part 2

  1. What is the annihilation of caste theory of Ambedkar.
    2. You may compare it to Gandhijis stance on caste.
    3. Mention Ambedkar’s conversion to Buddhism to realize his vision.


Part 3

  1. Recent developments
    2. Government programmes: Skill India, MUDRA, Start up India, Scholarships at every stage, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
    3. Suggestive measures: awareness programmers, constant monitoring and vigilance, promotion of intercaste marriages, unbiased education to children from an early age.


Part 4

  1. Measures are futile unless mindset is changed.
    2. All measures are far cry from Ambedkar’s view.
    3. Annihilation of caste is pre requisite to realize dilution of caste based biases.
    4. End on an optimistic note.


Best answer: Valar dohaeris

Trying to integrate Dalits into Hindu society by providing for measures like reservation in jobs/ educational institutions/ even political units- is more an act of tokenism. Not to say that such positive obligations on state aren’t important or are/ aren’t working, but with exposure to technology, more opportunities and hardwork- Dalits are capable of making a place for themselves.

What is needed is a complete overhaul of this regressive, deep-rooted caste system and not mere acts of tokenism.

Dr. Ambedkar’s politics was on the line of societal reforms. He adopted Buddhism and presented it to Dalits because Buddhism rejects caste system, believes in equality among all and judges people on basis of their act- not mere coincidence of fate of being born in a certain family.

To make this progressive change a reality, there is need to-

  • Efforts at root level to cut out caste system i.e. Schooling and early learning days, kids must be taught the importance of equality among all beings.
  • Awareness- to all sections of society of atrocities Dalits have faced in the past and continue to face till this date in various parts of the country.
  • Beginning a conversation at all levels about How to bring the change.

If we are able to change the mind-set of the people and give Dalits equality not merely on the paper but in every citizen’s heart and mind, now that will be the actual realisation of Ambedkar’s dream of equal and just society

3. Heritage conservation and maintenance is vital to preserve India’s incredible historical symbols. Do you think these functions should be transferred to private agencies for better and efficient management? Discuss.

India has a rich heritage which includes a repository of archaeological treasures and incredible monuments. This cultural history epitomised in heritage monuments stems from a historic past of ancient civilisation. The Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri in Agra, the Konark Sun Temple, Khajuraho Temples, Mahabalipuram Monuments, Thanjavur, Hampi Monuments as well as the Ajanta, Ellora and Elephanta Caves are some of the monuments declared as World Heritage Monuments.

Every community and society has a very precious heritage which has to be and can be transferred to the next generation and it is the responsibility of the civil society to transfer that heritage to the next generation.

It is disheartening to note that some people, forgetting that they are doing an irreparable damage to invaluable archaeological masterpieces, inscribe their initials, names, places, addresses or messages on these national treasures. The conservation and protection of these monuments cannot be neglected any further.

Excavations, recording of excavation findings, chemical findings and physical conservation of our monuments require a certain level of deft handling which need to involve the community. The Standing committee on Transport, Tourism and Culture has found “critical disconnect” in the Culture  Ministry`s approach towards heritage conservation vis-a-vis the people and the community.

Such a scenario called for transferring the functions of conservation and maintenance to the private sector. This has the following advantages:

  • Better and efficient management
  • Mission mode achievements of conservation targets
  • Proper utilisation of funds
  • Availability of professional workforce
  • Availability of better technology
  • Focused and organised effort towards conservation

Though transferring the functions of maintenance and conservation to the private sector is desirable, the following points highlight the difficulty in mobilizing the private sector:

  • The National Culture Fund set up to preserve culture and heritage had not received the required response from the corporate sector.
  • Cost-Benefit analysis not profitable to the private sector
  • Poor coordination with government agencies such as ASI, and organizations like INTACH, etc

However, heritage conservation and maintenance could be made attractive for corporate or public sector units by inclusion in the list of CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) activities and also by putting up plaques on monuments that could help in image building.

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