1. What differences do you perceive between the developmental models of Gujarat and Bihar? In your opinion, which model suits better for India as a whole? Are such comparisons justified? Critically examine.
Geography: Gujrat is a port state so has historically been active in trade
Land pattern: Vast swathes of semi arid lands make it easier to start industries
Bihar: landlocked, no port for trade, fertile lands so land acquisition is problem
Development strategy: Gujarat: capitalism orientated, heavy reliance on industry trade and service, emphasis on trickle down approach
Bihar: More focus on human development, agriculture and basic services
Political:Gujarat: Stable government, helped in long-term planning
Bihar: Frequent change of government, law and order problems and naxal problem
PSU: Gujarat: many state enterprises, Bihar: virtual absence of PSU’s
Which is best for India?
Not exclusively either of them but both as elements of both are required for national development
Because of diversity in geography, demography culture and resources, development of India can only happen only if each state is allowed to choose its own development path based on its strengths and weaknesses
Capital intensive industry is required for growth but human development is required for sustaining the growth.
Indian economic growth has to be balanced with social and political development. As such inequality reduction, poverty reduction and high standard of living have to be achieved through focus on overall development of citizens
Best answer Heidi
Gujarat and Bihar are two different states with different History, Economy, Topography and Demography. Hence they differ in pace, perspectives and achievements of their development.
Gujarat represents a liberalized and business friendly economy; Bihar concentrates on Public-welfare Development.
Gujarat-model has inherited advantages than Bihar (Trade, Commerce)
Gujarat’s priorities are urbanization and industrialization, Bihar focuses on Basic developments (Health, education)
DIFFERENCES BEYOND COMPARISON
1- HISTORY: Political instability (President-rule), Law & Order and caste-issues slowed down Bihar’s development. Political-stability (Post-independence) rich-Diaspora (Trade & Business) since ancient times made Gujarat prosperous.
2- ECONOMY: Industrial-development, urbanization, infrastructure made Gujarat investment-friendly. Bihar, heavily dependent on Agriculture-Allied sectors.
3- TOPOGRAPHY: Gujarat, being a COASTAL-STATE, has been benefited from foreign trade (Gulf), and entrepreneurial and business culture (FDI, EXPORT). Bihar, being a LAND-LOCKED agricultural state, lacks investment and economic development.
4- DEMOGRAPHY: Gujarat has low population (60-million) than Bihar (104-million) giving more resources and opportunities.
However following factors give scope for a comparison for a ‘WHOLE-INDIA’ development approach.
1- NATIONAL SIMILARITY: Bihar is India’s ‘Rural-Crosssection’. Bihar’s economic-growth-model (11.44%), can be followed by rural India. ‘Gujarat-model’ can lead ‘make-in-India’ initiative.
2- PERFORMANCE: Bihar, an agricultural-state is behind Gujarat in output. Despite underdevelopment, School-enrollment was doubled in Bihar but decreased in Gujarat (DISE). Comparison can help enhancing ‘Central-initiatives’
Best features of these models can be utilized for national development. Comparing their performance, despite their differences, will enhance ‘RESOURCE-REALLOCATION’ and ‘INCLUSIVE-GROWTH’.
2. The idea of interlinking the rivers to fight droughts and floods in various parts of the country might be economically prudent but it’s ecological fallouts outweigh the other benefits. Critically comment.
As a concept it was first proposed by K.L. Rao in 1972.
Today there are 23 proposed projects to interlink perennial rivers of the north to seasonal rivers of the south.
Major projects: Ken-Betwa, Par-Tapi-Narmada, Krishna-Godavari, Damanganga-Pinjal.
Increase in hydroelectric power supply throughout the country.
Increase of irrigated land to 35 million hectares.
Accessibility of water in drought prone areas will lead to women empowerment and better nutrition.
Better crop security due to reduction in droughts, floods and shortage of drinking water this in turn will compliment the food security of the nation.
Reduction in unemployment and migration.
Prevention of economic losses to areas like Assam and bihar by channelling river water to water-scarce regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Huge loss of biodiversity and endemic species of flora and fauna. Eg: Interlinking Ken and Betwa rivers adversely impacted the biodiversity of Panna Tiger Reserve.
Submergence of large areas o forests, agricultural and non-agricultural land.
May bring changes to physical and chemical composition of the sediment load, river morphology and shape of the delta formed.
Water borne diseases will spread much easily and water pollution may become a serious cause of concern.
Displacement of settled people on a large scale will lead to the problem of rehabilitation. This in turn will exacerbate the plight of already affected communities psychologically and socially.
Mutual hatred will be accentuated between upper and lower riparian states. Straining of relations with neighboring countries sharing river water (Pakistan, Bangladesh).
Proper EIA and SEA of every project.
Best answer: OLIVER QUEEN
Inter-linking of rivers project has been on the shelf for last 4 decades but still the no value add has been achieved until now. the cost benefit analysis has been a bone of contention for quite some time. It comprises of 3 segments,
Himalayan rivers. 2. Peninsular rivers 3. Intra-state river basin linkages.
Flood control by building dams and reservoirs to transfer excessive water deluge from one region.
Limitation of drought afflicted zones by garnering the surplus water from reservoirs and dams
Intensive and more penetrative waters supply as irrigation reservoirs can reach deep farm lands
More agricultural yield and increased productivity
inland waterways projects will be given a fillip due to construction of navigable infrastructure and more commercial connectivity
More employment generation with such huge projects coming into force.
pisciculture and related farming activities can be multiplied.
ECOLOGICAL FALLOUTS and NON-FEASIBILITY
Massive impact on environment and biodiversity with such incremented proliferation of dams and reservoirs
Exotic and endemic species will undergo disastrous competitive churning of food cycle with unknown effects on marine ecology
Deforestation will further lead to water run offs, soil erosion and further harm to hydrological cycle which can expedite climate change if not checked.
Rivers changes its course every 50-100 years, which can be lead to catastrophic consequences in future, so not feasible in the long term
Humongous displacement of people and animals leading to greater stress on central and state government for complete rehabilitation of the displaced ones.
Great amount of financial and political resources are required to put up with such projects with land acquisition, unanimous support from all state governments which are affected and tackling environmental activists.
Thus as all the stakeholders from central govt. , state govt. to the people and environment will under great deal of stress due to the massive scale of the project, environmental impact assessment should be done cautiously keeping not only economic interests but also ecological balance in mind.
3. Decentralized irrigation involving local wisdom is the solution to many of the problems being faced by the distressed farmers of the country. Discuss. To what extent the Krishi Sinchai Yojana gives attention to these dimensions? Examine.
In India,69% of the people in non-irrigated areas are poor, whereas in irrigated areas, this figure falls to 2%.This highlights the importance of irrigation in eradicating poverty and many problems being faced by the distressed farmers of the country.
The main focus till now has been on supply side policies like constructing large dams, canals, etc which have reached their limits. Such large scale projects are being abandoned owing to their environmental, economic and human costs. The solution therefore lies not in finding more water but to waste less and use it better.
Decentralised irrigation with focus on participative management of irrigation by creating water users’ associations will help in solving many problems of distressed farmers. It is in this context that the government came up with Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana
Krishi Sinchayee Yojana with an outlay of Rs.50,000 crores for a period of 5 years (2015-16 to 2019-20) to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) has been formulated amalgamating ongoing schemes viz. Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation; Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of Land Resources; and On Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. PMKSY is to be implemented in an area development approach, adopting decentralized state level planning and projectised execution, allowing the states to draw their irrigation development plans based on district/blocks plans with a horizon of 5 to 7 years. States can take up projects based on the District/State Irrigation Plan. All the States and Union Territories including North Eastern States are covered under the programme.
The National Steering Committee (NSC) of PMKSY under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Prime Minister will provide policy direction to programme framework and a National Executive Committee (NEC) under the chairmanship of Vice Chairman of NITI Aayog will oversee the programme implementation at national level.
Provision has been made under PMKSY during 2015-16 for carrying out extension activities in the field with special focus on water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.