1. What is the Madhesi dispute in Nepal? What role is being played by India to resolve the issue? Aren’t we trying to interfere into the internal matters of Nepal? Critically examine.
Introduction should include – Who are Madhesis in short and their dispute in Nepal
Madeshi dispute: (Write/Choose 3 points)
- Enlarged participation of the Terai in Nepal’s politics and policymaking (federalism)
- A separate state for Madhesi community
- Proportional representation in the parliament, which was completely neglected by the new Constitution
- The demarcation of the provinces: The provinces have been demarcated such that the representation of Madhesi’s in the Central Assembly is very less vis-a-vis their population percentage.
- The citizenship: The son’s and daughter’s of people who have married foreigners(mostly Indians) would be treated as second-class citizens with their political and property rights curtailed.
Role playing by India to resolve the issue
India was “concerned that the situation in several parts of the country bordering India continues to be violent.” India urged that issues on which there are differences should be resolved through dialogue in an atmosphere free from violence and intimidation, and institutionalised in a manner that would enable broad-based ownership and acceptance.
India also referred to the new document as “a Constitution” as opposed to “the Constitution,” leading to speculation that India still hopes for amendments which would correct what it sees as a marginalisation of the people in the Terai region.
(Write/Choose 3 points)
- India feels that the grievances of the madhesis are genuine and has voiced its concern and disappointment over Nepal’s partisan constitution that neglects the demands of the madhesis.
- Even before the formulation of the new constitution, India had been advocating for a non-partisan constitution in Nepal, which went unheeded.
- India was speculated to have unofficially facilitated an economic blockade which led Nepal to reciprocate its resentment.
- In the wake of Madhesi blockade at the India-Nepal southern border, India tended to support the Madhesis as:
- Madhesis share geographical, socio-cultural ties with parts of India like Bihar and UP which means any agitation on their part could spill over, causing unrest in India.
- It could trigger an influx of migrants due to open borders
Yes, India tried to interfere into the internal matters of Nepal. India has also being criticised in Kathmandu for having sided with the “discredited” Madhesi leaders, and shutting its eyes to the blockade that hurt the aam Nepali.
(Add few conventional points along with the current points)
- Security of Indian state is paramount and is, best subsumed, as ‘national interest’ (To defend the country’s national security)
- To maximize economic benefits for its citizens
- To enhance the effectiveness of country’s “Soft Power” (through propagation of its core cultural assets)
- To promote harmony and cooperation between the countries that has ideological, political and other differences
- To promote the economic development of underprivileged nations and their peoples. (India’s policy aims to cater to not just its own development needs but also those of the newly independent poor countries in the Third World)
India’s interference in Nepal’s dealing with the Madhesis has resulted in:
- Widespread resentment and mis-trust amongst the Nepali govt, population and media.
- Economic blockade has led to a humanitarian crisis with stalling of post-earthquake reconstruction work.
- Nepal has turned to China and Bangladesh for its fuel needs and other good supplies.
The way ahead: Give good conclusion
Best answer: bhawana
Madhesi dispute in Nepal is a result of minority insecurity that has emerged after formation of new constitution in the country. The community inhibits Terai region and shares border with Northern Indian states. What started as some rational demands in a democratic country soon turned into agitation and blockade of essential commodities on borders.
India tried to resolve the matter by negotiation but some violent factors obstructured the peace process. And when situation became worse India demanded amendments in the constitution to secure the reasonable rights of minorities but went further when she suggested what amendments should be taken. This was seen as an interference in internal matters of a sovereign country. And was criticized as a big brother attitude.
Concerns of India were legitimate and were natural for a country who tries to include interests of all citizens but the channel that was adopted was not right. It proved costly for India itself when Nepal turned towards China for help that erstwhile were provided by India. And anti-India sentiments that were recorded in various parts of Nepal were setback to the prestige that India enjoys in hearts of Nepalese.
It was truly an interference in the matters of a sovereign nation and could have easily avoided. India should have follow the goals of her foreign policy where she pledges that sovereignty of every country would be respected. Haste in process aggravated the situation. India could have a facilitator for talk between government of Nepal and Madhesi group as both of them look positively towards India.
Relations are coming back on track again with visits of Nepali dignitaries to India. But still a lot of needs to be done to revive the same bond which has been a striking feature of our policy towards neighbor countries since a long time. Minority in India also need attention and government should turn towards their issues first. And India has to adopt that she is a big country not a big brother.
2. Although there are few takers of the Caliphate being envisaged by the ISIS, the possibility of religious indoctrination of the Indian youth cant be shrugged off by the state. Do you agree? What necessary steps should be taken to ward off such possibility?
- Define caliphate: Caliphate is an Islamic state envisaged by ISIS, which is mainly governed by Caliph in accordance with Shiara Law.The possibilities of creation of such a state is less, because major power like France,USA,Russia are taken aggressive stand to eliminate ISIS and ensure peace.
- Role of ISIS: Sunni led ISIS have reinstated this idea and are striving for its establishment .All over the world ppl have been attracted to this ideology and have tried to join the ISIS. Even in India there have been cases of ppl having links with ISIS or trying to join ISIS have been arrested.
- In India there have been cases of ppl having links with ISIS or trying to join ISIS have been arrested:
-Although it is been called un-islamic by religious scholars in India, there has been arrests of Youths from all over the country recently one being Central government Navratna company employee from Jaipur.
– Recent arrest of a well educated techie in Benagaluru.
-Reports of youth joining ISIS or the possibility of terrorist attacks in India.
– rising communal violence and religion based discrimination.
– Radicalization of Muslims especially in Kashmir is gaining grounds.
-India has been mentioned in the speeches of ISIS leaders.
-Kashmir forms a part of IS envisaged Khorasan state.
- Give your stand, as to whether you agree or disagree.
- Communal harmony must be ensured in the society.
- The unemployment and economic hardships of minority communities should be controlled, by ensuring compulsory education (Article 21A) and using GOI schemes like Skill India, Mudra Yojana to allow skill development and fund support.
- Family values and virtues should be imparted to the youth. Regular discussions and in-family counselling.
- Intelligence gathering should be made robust. This can be achieved by being vigilante over internet, observing radical material, etc. Also institutional intelligence agencies (RAW, IB, state police, etc.) can co-ordinate.
- Involving human rights organization and NGO’s to constantly spread awareness about the ill-effects of war.
- Active cyber policing by authorities to keep watch on activities.
- Ban on radical websites and stopping access to their material.
Reassert the fact that Indian youth are susceptible to indoctrination till communal discord and disharmony is present. There is urgent need of harmonizing all religious beliefs and upholding the secular and democratic character of the country.
Re emphasize on the role that the government has to play.
Best answer: Leiter the Leader
Caliphate is an Islamic state envisaged by ISIS, which is mainly governed by Caliph in accordance with Shiara Law. The possibilities of creation of such is state is less, because major power like France, USA, Russia are taken aggressive stand to eliminate ISIS and ensure peace.
ISIS is aggressively propagating their ideology using modern technological tools like Facebook, youtube and Twitter, to gain sympathizers and legitimize their violent actions.It has already recruited large number youth, nearly from 51 countries including India. So Indian youth are getting radicalized by ISIS propaganda, even some youth were caught while moving towards Iraq from India. for instance three student from Telangana were caught while moving to Iraq from Delhi.
Steps need to be Taken:
1.Value Education: Value based education is very important to distinguish good from bad.It enhances one knowledge and enable him to take better decision in life.
2.Employment opportunities: Most of youth fell prey to these institution when they do not find any work in the country and get addicted to this due high salaries they provide.
3.Aggressive Campaign: Government should take aggressive campaign to create awareness about this anti national elements and infuse patriotism in the citizens.
4.Role of Parents: Parents should immediately intimate to the concerned authorities if they found their children are getting radicalized by ISIS.
5.Providing 24×7 Counseling Center: Counseling center with experts must be put in place to help the youth to get of radicalization. A separate help number can be provided for usage of all.
Diversity is India strength, it should not become its weakness. Given the immense diversity the ISIS organization can radicalized the youth especially Muslim youth in the name of religion, hence state should not ignore the issues and take action effectively to deal with the situation.
3. The tension and violence in the North East could have been tackled easily had internal factionalism and local hostilities among warring groups not infested the region. Analyse the statement. Also give examples.
- Intro :
Write briefly about the problems caused by insurgency in NE States; what do these factions want. Some factions favour a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Some extreme groups demand complete independence.
- Arunachal pradesh: National Liberation Council of Taniland(NLCT) is active along the Assam – Arunachal Pradesh border and its members belong to the Tani groups of people which is demanding Taniland
- Assam: ULFA: TheUnited Liberation Front of Assam was formed in April 1979 to establish a sovereign state of Assam through an armed struggle
· NDFB: The National Democratic Front of Bodoland was formed in 1989 as the Bodo Security Force, aims to set up an autonomous region Bodoland.
· KLNLF: The KarbiLongri N.C. Hills Liberation Front is a militant group,which claims to fight for cause of kabripeople,and wants self-determination and self-rule
· KLO: The objective of the Kamtapur Liberation Organisation (KLO) is to carve out a separate Kamtapur State
- Manipur: soon after the creation of Manipur state many armed groups were formed which wanted and independent state, alleging that merger with India was not voluntary, another problem was the rise of naga armed groups,who had greater nagalim as their goal, since many nagas reside in Manipur, inter tribal clashed started between NSCN ankkuki tribes of Manipur. thePeople’s Liberation Army of Manipur (PLA) was also formed for protecting kuki interest
- Another issue is of INNER LINE PERMIT, which is seen as an attempt by majority Mietes to grab land of kuki and zomitribals,
- Nagaland: NSCN was formed in 1980,which demanded greater Nagaland, which contains parts of Nagaland, Manipur and districts of Assam, the NSCN got divided into NSCN (IM) and NSCN(K)
- Both the groups have been fighting each other, NSCN(IM) signed peace accord with GOVT of India, which caused khaplang faction to launch attack last year, both groups claim that they are the sole naga representative.
- Tripura: armed groups emerged in Tripura during 1970’s as a result of increased immigration from Bangladesh, which they considered threat to economic political, and cultural life of natives, NLTF and ATTF both armed groups have the objective of expulsion of Bangladeshi from tripura
- Meghalaya: different groups representing Garo, synteng and khasi tribes are at war, for an independent state, HALC Ana AMLA are the major armed groups
What factors intensify this factional struggle:
- Religion: in Manipur ,the majority mieties are Hindus, the kukis are tribals, religion becomes dividing force in this case
- Religion and immigration: In Tripura, the armed groups want expulsion of Bangladeshi who are also Muslims. In Meghalaya also, the tribal armed groups are a against increased immigration
- Only representative of people: the inter-factional rivalry between NSCN (IM) and (k) are based on who is the authentic representative of naga cause, with side accusing other of betraying the naga people
- Territory: The fight between NSCN and armed groups of Manipur is based on territorial control
- Self determination and independent state: Manipur groups want independent state, so does karbi angling faction in Assam
- Autonomy: many groups want more autonomy in their affairs, they do not want secession but want a separate state under Indian constitution, and powers under the 6th schedule of the constitution eg: Bodos.
Governments response and solutions:
- Government of India has declared that it is ready to talk to any faction that is willing to give up violence,
- GOI has also said that legitimate demands for autonomy not amounting to secession will be entertained, eg naga accord, mizo accord and recent peace accord with NSCN(IM)
- GOVERNMENT of India has taken various initiatives for welfare and development of NE states
- Eg:creation of ministry for NE, infrastructure projects which not only connect NE but also its neighboring countries eg:kaladan multi model connectivity project
- Also govt has decided to come heavily on the group that perpetuate violence.
State your opinion and suggest measures and conclude.
Best answer : priyanka rani
The north eastern region of India is geo strategically significant where it consists of seven states namely Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya. This region is characterized by huge diversity in religion, language, and ethnicity, This diversity is reflected in insurgency, secessionist movement, demand for autonomy and statehood.
There is two-way conflict going on in this region. One conflict is between state and warring group where as the other being infighting among the warring group for power and resources. The demand one group conflicts with demand of other group.
> In Assam, there is demand for statehood by various ethnic group. There is demand to create Bodoland, Dimaraji, Kmatapur and KarbiAnglong. But the area which they claim come in conflict with other group as well as with other state also.
> In Nagaland, there is various tribal group like Angami, Rengma, Aho, etc. In 1947, A.Z. Phizo formed Naga National Council and demand independence for Nagaland. The protest was temporarily pacified by giving statehood status to Nagaland. But it further escalated and lead to Shillong Accord in 1975. Due to dissatisfaction over terms of accord faction broke out and formed NSCN. It further split due to rivalry into NSCN(IssakMuviah), NSCN(khaplang), NSCN(khole-kitovi) and NSCN(Reformation).
> The recent framework agreement between NSCN(IM) and central government was not accepted equally by other factions. Other factions claimed that NSCN(IM) is not sole representative of Naga tribes and Issak-Muviah belongs to Mizoram.
> They are demanding greater Nagalim but accepting this would lead to conflict with other neighbouring states as well as adjoining countries. Therefore, the framework agreement provide for increased autonomy under the ambit of the Constitution of India.
> In Manipur, Meiteis demand for inner line permit was opposed by hill tribes like naga and kuki.
> Provide dialogue and negotiation involving every faction to be represented.
> Ensuring security, law and order maintained.
> Provide greater autonomy like administrative council.
> Promoting Act East Policy and boosting connectivity through Asian Highway, Asian Railway, Trilateral Highway etc.
> Addressing structural issue like poverty, identity crisis, lack infrastructure etc
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