1. What factors can be attributed to the high incidence of domestic violence in Indian families? Are laws not in force to prevent victimization of women in their own homes? Analyse. Also suggest ways which can check this problem.
Domestic violence is one of the crimes against women which is linked to their disadvantageous position in the society. Domestic violence refers to violence against women especially in matrimonial homes. Therefore domestic violence is recognized as the significant barriers of the empowerment of women, with consequences of women’s health, their health health-seeking behaviour and their adoption of small family norm.
High incidence of domestic violence in Indian families can be attributed to (choose any 3 – 4 points)
Background characteristics such as education, age, marital duration, place of residence, caste, religion, sex of the head of the household, standard of living, work status of women, exposure to mass media and the autonomy of women with respect to decision making, freedom of movement and access to money are linked to domestic violence.
Murthy et al. (2004) is of the view that numbers of family members, type of marriage and husband’s education besides menstrual problems have significant influence on domestic violence.
While many researchers come out with findings that lifestyle of men such as smoking, alcoholism and drugs promote men to commit domestic violence and some are of the view that masculinity and domestic violence are closely interlinked.
Persons with lower socialization and responsibility are found to be the enhancers of the problem. Sons of violent parents and men raised in patriarchal family structure that encourages traditional gender role are more likely to abuse their intimate partners.
Educational level and poverty are important reasons for domestic violence
Marriage at a younger age makes women vulnerable to domestic violence
Role of inter spousal relationship, sex of the children, ownership of property, dowry, working status, autonomy, religion and caste of the person can’t be ignored
Laws have failed to prevent victimization of women in their own homes (choose any 3 – 4 points)
(Cite some laws – The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005; Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961; IPC and CPC sections)
Despite having strong and unilateral anti domestic violence law in our country, we are not able to eradicate the problem completely due to ignoring the social mindset which prevails alongside these enacted laws. The social stigma attached to a woman which seeks remedy from our judicial system should not be cast aside. In majority of cases real victim woman in our Indian society continues to tolerate these incidents of domestic violence for the sake of her children, family and social stigma without approaching these legal remedies provided by these acts. Law can play very limited role to tackle this social mindset.
Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 has banned the practice of dowry but in reality all that the law does is to recognize that the problem exists. It is virtually unheard of for a husband or his family to be sued for insisting on taking a dowry.
Bred in Indian culture, a wife rarely thinks in terms of reporting a case of battering to the police. She suffers humiliation in silence and takes it as her destiny.
Most domestic violence deaths occur in the privacy of husband’s house & with the collusion of family members. Court, therefore, admit their inability to convict any one for lack of evidence.
Lack of gender sensitiveness in the implementing agencies and Police are so callous in conducting investigations (efficiency and integrity of the police authorities is questioned)
In view of the prevalence of the problem, it is suggested to have programmes that take into account involvement of the community and especially the males for effective as well as fruitful amelioration of the issue. It can again be suggested that education of the girls should be encouraged, which will undoubtedly work as deterrent to domestic violence. Again, though the present findings are silent about the legal side of the issue, stringent laws against the perpetrators of the violence, laws giving more rights to the women will always be beneficial to curb the issue. As it is found to be deep rooted in the socio cultural practices and both the perpetrator as well as victim take it granted, there is need of major transformation in the socio cultural milieu. In order to address the problem, social norms and values towards gender roles should be transformed to facilitate the implementation of appropriate and meaningful responses to domestic violence and ultimately to prevent it from happening altogether.
Best Answer: CSE2016 aspirant
In ancient India, women were given a lot of respect. From studies of vedas to holding important positions in society, women enjoyed high positions. But, with time our society has been degraded with high incidences of domestic violence against women.
(1) Patriarchal society
—–> Women are considered to be ‘Paraya Dhan’ (Estranged money) by their own parents.
—–> In most of the cases, in-laws exploit the brides in disguise of this societal norm.
(2) Difficult lives of divorcee
—–> Life of divorced woman, even in modern India, is not so easy.
—–> Apart from working hard to feed her children, she has to face the taunts of society.
(3) High gender divide in literacy rate :
Due to inadequate education, it’s difficult for women to be independent and self sufficient.
(4) Insecurity of children
Family values are very strong in India. For the sake of the children, who are still studying in school, and are vulnerable to abuse from abusive husbands/in-laws, they are forced to submit to the conditions.
(5) Lack of stricter laws against violent in laws/husband.
(6) Want for a boy child. Women are considered solely responsible for bearing girl child.
(7) Khap Panchayat’s dominance in villages
—–> Their orthodox and inhuman sentences are bane for women.
(8) Superstitious practice of witch craft in villages adds to the woes of women.
There are various LAWS which criminalise the domestic violence, but are not enough :
(1) Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act , 2005 was enacted to protect the women from domestic violence.
——> Most of the time, it’s difficult for women, especially poorer ones, to have an advocate and register the case.
——> Lengthy trial periods attack the spirit of the victims as they have suffer increased torture during this period.
——> Out of court settlements and lack of budgetary support are some more issues.
(2) Dowry prohibition act, 1961 was enacted to criminalise dowry system. Section 498-A and 304-B (related to dowry deaths) of IPC are against domestic violence.
(3) Family succession act (1956) and Hindu marriage act (1955) have empowered women in matters like inheriting property of parents and divorce.
——> But, the real issue is implementation of laws. Women are not able to come forward due to legal hassles and societal pressure.
WAY AHEAD :
(1) Change in mindset :
—–> A major campaign is required to change the patriarchal mindset of the society.
—–> Parents should invest more on their daughter’s education and health, then at their marriages.
(2) Strict laws :
—–> There should be stricter laws against domestic violence.
—–> Speedy disposal of domestic violence cases is important.
—–> Marital rape should be made punishable offence.
(3) Community awareness / Self help groups
—–> Campaigns like ‘Bell Bajao’, which stops the incidence of domestic violence from happening in the neighborhoods should be encouraged by authorities.
—–> More women group like ‘ Gulaab Gang’ should be created, especially in rural areas.
(4) Women reservation in legislatures
—–> Real women empowerment can only happen if they themselves make law for them.
In India, women are considered avatars of goddesses. And it is the same society, which perpetrates violence on her. Domestic violence is disgust to the nation and should be brought to end.
2. Recently the spread of Meningococcal infection has been a real cause of worry. How does this infection spread? Also discuss its symptoms and preventive measures.
What is it: an infection caused by the bacteria Neisseria Meningitidis. It infects the thin lining of brain and spinal cord and causes inflammation of membrane surrounding these tissues. It can become fatal if untreated.
It can be deadly, leading to death in 10-15 percent of cases. Among those who survive, as many as 19 percent live with permanent disabilities, such as brain damage, hearing loss, loss of kidney function or limb amputations.
Recently events: The sub-Saharan belt of Africa, stretching from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east (26 countries), has the highest rates of the disease mainly due to seasonal variation & overcrowding of villages. With the advent of Globalization the disease has penetrated USA and Hong Kong diseases. Hence WHO has declared it as a medical emergency in 2015 when Niger Health board reported 8,500 suspected cases of meningococcal infections, including 573 deaths.
The bacteria resides in the throat and nose of the carrier and transmitted from person to person through
– droplets of respiratory or throat secretions in carriers (humans – no animal reservoirs).
-prolonged contact such as kissing, sneezing and living in close proximity with the infected persons.
After a period of 4 days on entering a human body, it can overwhelm body’s resistance power and diffuses into the blood to reach Brain.
It causes meningitis and septicimia.
Children under the age of 5 years (especially babies) are the most at risk. The second most common age group at risk is teenagers aged 15 to 19.
Purple or red rash
Spots that grow and appear blotchy and start looking like bruises
General feeling of being unwell or sick
Pale, dusky or blue color of the skin around the lips
Keeping up to date with recommended immunizations is the best defense against meningococcal disease.
Maintaining healthy habits, like getting plenty of rest and not coming into close contact with people who are sick, can also help.
VACCINATION -There are vaccines that help provide protection against all three serogroups (B, C, and Y) of Neisseria meningitidis bacteria – Polysaccharide vaccines , vaccine made from a combination of 4 protein components meningococcal conjugate vaccines.
ANTIBIOTICS- People who qualify as close contacts of a person with meningococcal disease should receive antibiotics to prevent them from getting the disease. This is known as prophylaxis.
Those who have had the disease once must get regularly vaccinated to avoid re-surfacing
A way forward can be discussed emphasizing in enhanced R&D, awareness, immunization programmes etc.
3. The government has been promoting AYUSH as an alternative medicine system. What do you understand by the term AYUSH? What are its benefits? Also discuss the features of Sowa Rigpa.
Write briefly about what is AYUSH and why the government is promoting it:
AYUSH stands for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, which are which are traditional Indian medicine systems except unani, which has graeko-Arab origins,
They are considered as alternative medicine systems compared to the more popular Allopathy system.
National AYUSH Mission for development and promotion ofAYUSH systems. n the year 2014-15, an amount of Rs 7528.71 lakhs was released to the states as grant-in-aid under AYUSH Mission . In 2015-16, an amount of Rs 10849.57 lakhs has already been released as grant-in-aid under the Mission.
As pwr NSSO survey 90% of Indian population still prefers allopathy over AYUSH systems.
Govt by gazette notification has included AYUSH under health insurance scheme.
Benefits of AYUSH:
Focus: Alopathy treatment is symptomatic i.e, treats as per the symptoms,
Prices: Alopathy is very taxing on the pockets of common man, AYUSH preparations are comparatively cheap, thus making them accessible for common people
Effectiveness: AYUSH systems are consider more effective in long term and in case of chronic ailments
Side effects: compared to allopathy ,AYUSH systems have few side effects, but still many people may be allergic to certain natural substances used in ayurvedic preparations
Sowa rigpa, commonly known as “Amchi” id the oldest surviving system of medicine in the world, found particularly in the Himalayan region of India. It is practized in the states of Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal (Darjeeling) etc.
The practices of Sowa Rigpa are similar to the ancient Ayurveda and also contains elements of traditional Chinese medicine
. The fundamental book of Sowa Rigpa is believed to be taught by Buddha himself and hence is deeply ingrained in the Buddhist philosophy.
This system believes that human body is made up of five elements (Prithvi, Agni, Vayu, Jal, Akash) and the antidotes used for curing is also made of the same elements.
Sowa-rigpa is the science of healing and was granted status of traditional medicine system in 2010.
State your opinion and conclude
Best answer :PRIYANKA RANI
In order to achieve Sustainable Development Goal of ensuring healthy living and promoting well-being for all at all ages, the government has taken various initiatives like drafting Public Health Policy, establishing department for AYUSH, collaborating with WHO, etc.
AYUSH form traditional Indian medicine system for healing and curing diseases. It stands for Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy .
Yoga and Ayurveda originated under vedic knowledge. Both advocate asana and pranayam for physical and mental health.
Unani originated from ancient Greek and transmitted to India through contact with Arabs.
Siddha was designed by Ancient Tamil sages named Siddhars.
Homeopathy designed by German which is based on doing case history of patients and accordingly provide small dose medicine which is unique for each person.
The benefits of AYUSH are:-
a) Harmony:- It establishes harmony between mind and body. It provide for convergence between art of healthy living with science of healthy living. It aims to combine individual consciousness with universal consciousness.
b) Harmless:- It do not have any side effects. It do not lead pollution or any unsustainable practices.
c) It provide for preventive, curative, and rehabilitative healthcare.
d) It provide for cheap and affordable healthcare. Therefore, promoting UHC.
e) It would promote medical tourism, establishing effective relation with other countries and collaboration with WHO to promote AYUSH.
Sowa Rigpa is the science of healing. Its traditional medicine system originated either from India or China. It is practiced in Tibet, Mongolia, Bhutan, China, Nepal and Himalayan part of India. It has similarity with Ayurveda. Ayurveda and other traditional sciences was exported from India to Tibet through influence of Buddhism. It has four fundamental Mantras which formed part of Indian, Chinese and Greco-Arab medicine system. It treat diseased body as location of treatment through antidote.
a) Upgradation and building of infrastructure, colleges, etc. for promoting AYUSH.
b) Promoting research and development in AYUSH.
c) Ensuring funding to state based on population, performance, backwardness etc.
d) Ensuring quality control and accreditation of institute for training.
e) Generating awareness about benefit of AYUSH.
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