1.Hilly regions are vulnerable to landslides. Why? Can you identify some highly sensitive regions of our country where landslides occur frequently? Also suggest mitigation strategies for the same.
A landslide is a downward and outward movement of slope materials like rocks, soil and so on under the influence of gravity. gravity and accumulation of soft soil, debris and rocks on a steep slope are the primary reason for a landslide.
Reasons for the vulnerability of hilly areas:
1) Natural Factors: > Intense rainfall and cloud bursts loose traction of soil and land equilibrium and induces slides.
> Mass accumulation due to deposition and subsequent dredge with respect to gravity.
> Tectonic activities like earthquakes, tremors, volcanic events destabilize equilibrium.
> Grazing, soil erosion, sheer wind forces etc., also induces landslides.
2) Anthropogenic Factors: > Construction activities including power projects, infrastructure etc., alters the natural geography and stability of the region.
> Deforestation, unmindful agricultural practices, disturbing natural drainage system, mountain blasting etc., are some other events
According to Geological Survey of India, roughly 15% of the country’s landmass is prone to landslides.
The National Disaster Management Authority lists the Himalayan states, Arakan-Yoma belt in the north east, Meghalaya plateau, Western Ghats and Nilgiri hills as landslide vulnerable areas.
Himalayan Region – Habitable regions include J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim etc., are highly prone to tectonic events, young fold mountains, so the geological equilibrium has not been reached,
Western Ghat region including Nilgiris: (high rainfall and overexploitation, habitations and developmental activities.
Formulation of Landslide mitigation plan with active collaboration of the Centre, thestates, domain experts and civil society.
Proper zonation and strict enforcement of the zonal regulations, so that both natural conservation and development works can be synergized.
Building drains in the vulnerable areas to remove the surface water faster and safely
Afforestation should be carried out in these areas to prevent soil from loosening and terrace cultivation should be encouraged to break the force of water and debris moving down the slope.
Slope stability measures: These measures include providing buttresses, shear keys, sub-drains, soil reinforcement, surface protection, slope modification, retaining walls, gabion wall, breast wall, etc.
Early Warning Systems:As landslides are very localized and confined to intense monsoon periods, it is envisaged that an early warning system would provide immense benefit in alerting people living in high hazard areas
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: MAHI.
The movement of a mass of rock or soil/ debris downs a slope under the influence of gravity.
Hilly regions are more prone to landslides because of Geography and topography of the region. Hilly areas like Himalayas are more prone to earthquake which weaken the slopes and hence landslides. The presence of perennial rivers in Himalayas and excessive rainfall cause landslides. Volcanic eruptions can produce loose ash deposits, heavy rain and debris flow. The human factors responsible are construction activities, transportation, dams, canals, mining , jhum cultivation etc.
The regions sensitive to landslides are Himalayan mountain system and Western Ghats. The Himalayan mountain system comprises of tectonically unstable geological formations subjected to severe seismic activity, also large perennial rivers so more vulnerable to landslides.
Western ghats and nilgiris are comparatively geologically stable and also there are seasonal rivers thus lower landslides.
Landslides have small and located area of direct influence but roadblock, destruction of railways , changing of river courses etc. have far reaching effects. Thus the following mitigation strategies must be adopted
Restriction on the construction and other developmental activities such as road and dams.
Limiting agriculture to valleys and areas with moderate slope. Control on development of large settlement in high vulnerability zones. Also afforestation , construction of bund to reduce the flow of water, terrace farming should be adopted
2. In order to become a preferred destination for FDI, what steps have been taken by the Government recently? Why India lags behind China in attracting FDI? Analyse
According to Industry Ministry data, India received FDI of $19.39 billion during January-June 2015, an increase of 30% over the same period last year. The Modi government in the last few months had introduced many FDI policy reforms in sectors such as defence, rail infrastructure, construction development, insurance, pension, medical devices, white label ATM operations, investments by NRIs on non-repatriation basis and has introduced composite cap for foreign investment.
Steps taken by Government recently: (Choose any 3 points)
Path breaking amendments which can be clubbed into three categories: a “radical change” in the FDI regime in the construction sector; an increase in the threshold of foreign participation (the so-called sectoral caps) in several key sectors, including defence, broadcasting, private sector banks, non-scheduled air transport service, ground-handling services, and credit information companies; and simplification of the procedures for foreign participation in a number of sectors.
‘Big Bang’ Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) reforms: easing norms across 15 sectors including defence, banking, construction, single brand retail, broadcasting and civil aviation.
For facilitating faster approvals on most of the proposals, the government also raised the threshold limit of approval by Foreign Investment Promotion Board from the earlier Rs 3,000 crore to Rs 5,000 crore.
Introduction of the “automatic route”: This provides a channel for foreign investors to bypass multiple approval processes for foreign investment activities. The automatic route allows foreign investors access to specified economic sectors without prior approval from the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB). This route reduces red tape and eases FDI inflows into India once non-residents obtain the requisite industrial licenses.
Simplification of the procedures: Process of applying for Industrial License (IL) and Industrial Entrepreneur Memorandum (IEM) has been made completely online and this service is now available to entrepreneurs on 24X7 basis at eBiz website without human interface.
India lags behind China in attracting FDI: (choose any 4 points)
Conditions in the global capital markets and general economic environment play a role in determining the flow of FDI into China. A thriving global economy, capital markets and business environment of China create large swaths of investable capital, a portion of which is converted to FDI.
China’s attractiveness as a destination for investment capital rests on its development of infrastructure, resource availability (physical and labor), productivity and workforce skills, and the development of the business value chain.
Another component for attracting FDI involves the availability of low-cost, skilled employees who possess the necessary aptitudes, experience and proficiencies to create, manufacture, and provide goods and services that can compete in global markets.
Political and economic stability facilitates an influx of FDI – China has comparatively stable political environment due to single party rule and uniformity of policies. India, unlike China, is a puristic democracy which has to take care of all stakeholders. This is evident from hardship in acquiring Land for developmental purposes.
Market openness serves several important roles in attracting FDI. Of critical importance is a business’ ability to sell its products and services to both local and foreign markets. (China is an export oriented economy – facilitates an influx of FDI)
Using foreign capital to create a larger domestic manufacturing base is a laudable objective but to achieve this, India must learn how to invite investment and technology on its own terms. Unlike China, we have failed to do this in the past.
In China SEZs are well established. They are adequately connected with roads, ports and railways whereas Indian SEZs demand for reforms.
Best answer: Vengeance
India became the highest receiver of FDI in the past year with services sector taking the lead. The achievement is inspiring and has been facilitated by various steps of Government recently:
1) National Manufacturing Policy 2020 and DIPP formulated a strategy to boost manufacturing to 25% of GDP by 2020.
2) Invest India setup as National Investment Promotion & Facilitation Centre.
3) Full-fledged Investment Facilitation Cell to support all investment related queries.
4) Make in India policy complimented with Skill India, Digital India, Stand-Up India, SETU, AIM initiatives.
5) India Aspiration Fund setup under SIDBI for venture capital financing, with 2000 crores.
6) “Ease of Doing Business” initiatives like applying for Industrial License, Industrial Entrepreneur Memorandum made online.
7) Registrations for EPFO, ESIC are automated, with around 20 services integrated with E-Biz portal.
India lags behind China because:
1) China has culture of successful SEZs, which enable multiple industries at one place reducing cost of production drastically, India failed in this objective.
2) China has better infrastructural capacities like roads, connectivity, electricity, etc.
3) China comprises of skilled labor which is also cheap, whereas India has cheaper labor but falters when looking at skillfulness.
4) China enjoys political stability with no fear of change in Governmental policies along with change in Government as in India.
5) China has continued to devalue its currency giving dollar higher return than previously invested.
However, with China’s slowdown the trend is shifting, and India has also emerged as fastest growing economy of the world among larger countries surpassing China’s record of decades. The trend must continue and Government should support by doing its bit.
3. Recently, few states came under President’s rule. Can you identify those states? Along with citing provisions of the Constitution, discuss the reasons for which President’s rule was imposed in those states.
President’s rule as per constitution is rule by center due to breakdown of constitutional machinery in states. It is ruled by governor who acts as representative of president. Recently 3 states came under President’s rule: J&K, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
Article 356: It deals with presidential discretionary powers of emergency which is imposed when there is failure of constitutional machinery or when a democratically elected government is unable to form government (mainly due to lack of majority).
2. Article 365: Effect of the failure to comply with or to give effect to, the directions given by the Union.
In J&K President’s rule was imposed due to the death of Chief Minister and subsequent failure of coalition formation. Section 92 of the Jammu and Kashmir Constitution was invoked. Governor’s rule proclamation was issued by Jammu & Kashmir State Governor after obtaining consent of the President of India. Situation was different there. No party clear majority and after demise of CM coalition government had broken and hence a logjam. This case is actually positive use of president’s rule as seen negatively in most cases. .
Assembly did not hold its session for more than 6 months. It was violation of article 174.
MLA’s withdrew support for the CM and extended support to other political party.
9 M.P’s from ruling party joined hands with the opposition and requested governor to recommend presidents rule.
Appropriation bill was passed by a voice vote.
Allegation against CM for involvement in horse-trading.
The Imposition of President Rule brought the focus back on Article 356 of the Constitution – used and misused for decades by successive governments irrespective of their political ideology. After the landmark verdict on the S.R. Bommai case (1994), the article has been used sparingly, or in exceptional circumstances due to the contention of a judicial review. The contention that president’s rule was being misused by parties in power was accepted, with the court issuing strict guidelines on its imposition. The government following a theory of cooperative federalism should use it judiciously and not be combative of the states for true development and growth.
Best answer: swathi
The recent ruling of President was applicable to the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
Constitutional provisions for the imposition of president’s rule are – Article 356 – Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in states
Article 365 – Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to the directions given by the Union
Once President’s rule is imposed, the assembly ceases to function and the state comes under the Central government’s direct control. President takes over the functions of the state government and powers vested in the governor/ executive authority of the state concerned.
Case of J&K – Governor’s recommendation for President Rule in light of deadlock over the formation of the new government. For this purpose, Section 92 of the Jammu and Kashmir Constitution was invoked. Governor’s rule proclamation was issued by Jammu & Kashmir State Governor after obtaining consent of the President of India.
Case of Arunachal Pradesh – Speaker’s failure to get the state assembly convened within 6 months of its last meet
Governor’s decision to advance the assembly session by a month without the consent of the ruling party on the requisition of the opposition MLA’s for the removal of speaker
The spilt in the majority party due to rebel MLA’s created constitutional crisis
Case of Uttarakhand – Imposed due to the breakdown of governance after political crisis was triggered by ruling rebel leaders.
The passage of Appropriation bill by voice vote, speaker passed it unanimously even when the majority party lost the support