1. Tribal rights can’t be pushed aside in the name of development. What do you understand by ‘tribal rights’? From where do these rights come? Why they need to be protected? Elaborate.
Part I: About Tribal Rights
Tribal Rights are those rights which confer legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement to the tribal people. They are fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of tribal people or owed to tribal people.
Generally these rights preserve their sovereignty, protect tribal lands and resources, protect tribal rights to self-government, and provide services necessary for tribal survival and advancement. Tribal rights also includes the right to govern themselves, define their own membership, manage tribal property, and regulate tribal business and domestic relations. These rights can’t be pushed aside in the name of development
Part II: These rights come from: (Should include some of the following)
Constitutional Provisions – Cover Schedule V and VI, Articles under Fundamental rights, Articles 46 DPSP, 244(1) and (2), Articles 330 and 332, Article 338-A NCST(National Commission for ST).
Domestic Legislation (Statutory Provisions) – Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act,
International Covenants – UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
We need to protect the rights of tribal as: (Should include some of the following)
First of all as a human being and a citizen they have a basic and fundamental right to live
Their living is ecologically sustainable and they directly and indirectly provide many forest related services which are invaluable
Development per se, be it social, economic, political, they lack behind the mainstream society, so being a welfare and egalitarian state, it is imperative to grant them special protection
To prevent them from joining naxal forces and left movement as they may loose confidence on government if they are not sufficiently protected.
Lack of such protection leads to their marginalization that may have security implication. To bring such communities into mainstream development by offering them better and lucrative facilities of employment, education and medical services
They have distinct culture and ways of life which must be protected from outsiders and allow them to develop independently. To bring down their isolation from the mainstream Indian society without disturbing their culture.
Conclusion: Rights being basic essentials gives citizens essence of security against the arbitrary action by the State, tribal rights will help in long way for social inclusion of tribal’s and their betterment. Such protection will take us one step ahead in realizing dream of our constitution makers.
Best answer: Undaunted
Tribal rights are the rights of marginalized communities who have left behind in the mainstream development. They may include forest dwellers, aboriginals or those who have included in 6th schedule of constitution of India.
Since independence government of India has tried focusing on those who were brutally exploited by colonial laws and tribes form one such class. So, they have been granted various constitutional rights, statutory rights to put an end to their alienation.
Various rights and commissions protecting them are:
Protection under 6th schedules
National commission for scheduled tribes to assist government formulating policy for them
Forest Rights Act 2006 for granting them community ownership and rights over minor forest produce
PESA to promote decentralization and local autonomy via Gram Sabha
Cartagena Safety Protocol mandating the appropriate share in intellectual rights to forest dwellers owing to traditional knowledge
They need to be protected because
Development per se , be it social , economic, political , they lack behind the mainstream society, so being a welfare and egalitarian state, it is imperative to grant them special protection
Scarcity of means of livelihood though abundance of natural resources at their native place
Nexus of commercial groups and vested political interest which often end up in their exploitation
Threat of diverging them into LWE or naxalism if their energies are not channelized properly
Rich resource of traditional knowledge which can be used for commercial reasons as well as their upliftment.
Thus, they can prove to be a great asset in country’s socio economic development wherein state can be actually called as welfare state, envisaging the directives of welfare state enshrined in our Constitution.
2. What do you understand by investigative journalism? In the Indian context, what standards would you recommend to be followed and why? Analyze.
Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which a journalist goes deep into the subject matter and comes to a final conclusion when investigating is done. The basic feature of such journalism is that Public are made aware about the news when the News is confirmed in the eyes of journalists.
Recently when Vijay Mallya went to UK, Indian media started hype that he left the country and ditched our Government. It was after few days when Mallya tweeted that he was on business tour. This is completely opposite of Investigative journalism where any information is just displayed on Media platform without investigating. Other examples include JNU, Caste matter etc where comments are made without investigating.
Ethics in journalism: while ethics is a part of journalism, it is occasional in Indian journalism, instead of inherent. Sensationalism is dominating the media as seen in reporting of flood, drought, earthquakes etc.
Public good: there is need to put public interest ahead of petty TRP ratings and self promotion of channels. Scandalizing opponent is becoming a norm.
Independence and equity: Indian news owned by corporate has been seen serving interest of the politicians and acting as a platform for verbal spat, serving no public good.
Ethical deception: sting operations are becoming a tool in the hands of vested interest. As seen in Uttarakhand, used as a tool for president rule. Deception must be qualified by last resort, public interest and ethical supervision.
Independent but regulated: though the terms are contradictory but there is need for integration between the two. An independent regulator, providing a documented set of guidelines for quality as well as with punitive powers must be established.
Scientific temper: journalism is going against the constitution itself when it promotes superstition based on entertainment.
Paid media should be avoided.
Extensive verification of the sources and the news collected.
The information it gathered about some organization or an individual should not used for its personal benefits by black mailing them. In this regard it needs well return rules that are to be followed.
National security and national interest should not be compromised. The incident of Indian coast guard intercepting a suspect Pakistani boat off the Gujarat coast was investigated by some which portrayed India in bad light.
Not abusing anonymous and confidential sources. Because misusing such sources breeds mistrust among public towards journalism.
They should collect facts for truth finding and should not give verdicts by media trials, this is because, and media trials may influence the court proceedings.
Centre for Investigative Journalism is India’s first independent non-profit organisation, registered as a trust with GoI. Investigative journalism holds the potential to rightfully fight for cases not covered under RTI, PIL, etc. Indian journalism is growing and its contribution in global investigative cases (like Panama paper leaks) is also growing. Way ahead lies in adherence to prescribed standards, control over paid sensational news and a monitoring body (like PTI, etc)
3. Despite having a national cyber security policy, risks to our critical infrastructure remain. India needs both offensive cyber operations and strengthened cyber security to deal with new challenges. Discuss. (The statement has been picked directly from The Hindu. )
India has fastest growing digitization rates, but its digital capabilities lag far behind the regional and global players.
Despite having a national Cyber Security Policy 2013, India still faces risks for its Critical infrastructure in the form of espionage, cyber attack and cyber warfare, which if actualized can destabilize economy and weaken the security of the country.
How to strengthen security:
Integrated efforts: currently India has plethora of cyber security agencies like CERT-IN, NTRO, NIG, NIB, and various departmental offices, but there is little coordination among them in terms of intelligence sharing and carrying out unified operations. This has to be done away with, and a single unified agency has to be created to take care of cyber security threats, both civilian and military.
National security architecture: India currently does not have any National cyber security architecture, even the NSCP2013 is only statement of first Principles. Need is to have a clear Cyber Security Strategy, like the Nuclear Doctrine.
Asymmetric nature: since the cyber space is of asymmetric nature where military and civil infrastructure can be attacked by both State and Non-state actors, India needs to have multi-agency organization, which is technically equipped with sound strategy and policy inputs.
Expert Man force: Indian SC establishments are understaffed, with poorly trained workforce; they need to be filled with competent and expert people, who can be attracted by good salaries.
Offensive operations: India needs to have a Indian Cyber Command, which can develop cyber weapons to intrude, intercept an exploit digital networks, as only defensive strategies will not work given the anonymous nature of attackers, and difficulty in tracking.
Having such weapons will create minimum deterrence, at least as long as the state actors are concerned.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: MAHI.
The world is now going digital and in thus digital era we are facing the most serious challenge from cyber warfare/ crime.
Cyber threat is asymmetric, multidimensional, multiregional, can have both state or non state actors and can bring disproportionate damage to the economy, infrastructure and people of any nation.
Despite having a National Cyber Policy 2013 , India is still vulnerable to cyber threat as
1 the people are mostly ignorant and unaware of cyber security threats and are becoming its victim
2 mobile penetration in India is increasing and we are net exporter of information and there is no effort to restrict flow of data susceptible to cyber crimes
3 though we have cyber policy but we lack cyber security professionals ,there is lack of cyber security architecture to assess the nature if cyber threat and respond to it
4 cyber threat is asymmetric and requires coordination between different agencies but in India civilian have their own fire fighting agencies and army has their own policy , also there is no coordination between NTRO and ministry of ICT.
To deal with the problem of cyber crime, espionage, cyber attacks and war we need both offensive and defensive capabilities.
India needs bleeding age technology and cyber security experts who can intercept and preempt cyber attacks and can respond.
There should be emphasis on cloud computing , coordination between different agencies
India should accede to Budapest convention ( convention on cyber crime)
India has taken few steps such as Indian cyber coordination centre; national cyber registry ;PMO established National cyber security coordinator; actively participating in Ground Zero Summit etc.
We need a robust cyber security system to protect our citizens, critical infrastructure, economy and for success of Make in India, Digital India.
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