1. A country’s regulatory approach has deep influence on the level of its economic activity and social transformation. Discuss.
Write a brief introduction
Influence on economic activity:
An independent regulator can allow for greater private sector entry into a sector. The resultant higher competition can lead to better service quality and consumer empowerment. E.g. CCI has helped in giving a level playing field for all the players by encouraging more competition and penalizing those who indulge in unfair practices like cartelization.
The proactive and cautious role of RBI has made Indian banks more resilient to global shocks and by regulating interest rates it has consistently encouraged more trade and economic activity.
SEBI by keeping a watchful eye on the companies and encouraging proactive disclosures which not only has fostered better practices among companies but has also led to increased business for those entities because of increased public faith in them e.g. Wipro, Infosys etc. It has also led to identification and curbing of corporate frauds like Satyam and Sahara
CIC has always supported proactive information disclosures from the State, which has empowered the citizens to seek information under RTI, based on which they can make informed decisions; this has had a great impact in reducing corruption.
RBI by prioritizing agriculture, education and housing under BPL has led to increase in the standard of living of people, helping them get out of the clutches of poverty.
RBI by mandating the opening of bank’s branches in rural areas has led to financial inclusion of the people of rural areas.
UGC by increasing the number no colleges and distance learning courses has made education affordable and accessible to many rural and poor people.
Regulations under labour laws have helped in safeguarding minimum wages and safety of tenure for the workers, who would have been at the mercy of their employers otherwise.
Give a brief conclusion.
Best answer: MACHIAVELLI
Regulations have a great bearing on country’s economic and social sphere and thus a country’s regulatory approach is vital to its development – social and economic. There always remains a skepticism regarding regulation and over regulation and this is where rationality and vision plays a role.
As seen in various countries USA, EU or India, central bank plays a key role in determining and directing the growth. While quantitative easing and fed tapering have been used effectively to recover from global slowdown, RBI has played its part by being careful on global slowdown. RBI too has been careful to balance growth and inflation accordingly at the same time protecting from external shocks thus promoting growth. Regulators like SEBI are crucial for investor’s confidence and increased investment.
At the same time too much regulation leaves little space for market driven growth and acts as a hindrance for investment as seen in case of labour laws and environmental clearance , while oversight leads to various scams like coal scam , Satyam etc.
Regulators in social sphere are even more vital as this affects the down trodden the most. Regulation by RBI for priority sector has been proved to be outstanding to ensure rural credit and financial inclusion. IRDA have played key role in social security. Similarly, SC has been spot on with liberal interpretation of right to life. NGT is playing its part to ensure healthy environment.
At the same time, MCI has been lax in regulation and this is visible all over India by poor health indicators. Lack of doctor is conspicuous and competent are still rare. Similarly education too has been marred by either poor or over regulation. RTE has been able to get infrastructure but not learning outcomes. UGC is even detailing the curriculum for universities hindering their specialty.
Thus there might be a very thin line between a regulator and facilitator and a country’s regulatory approach must be more of a facilitator in economic and social sphere allowing freedom where necessary and guiding whenever needed.
2. Moral policing takes over the society only when routine policing fails. Examine the statement in context of the recent incident that took place against some women in Pune.
Introduction: (Give short description about ‘Moral Policing’ and concerns regarding it)
Moral policing refers to vigilante groups enforcing a code of morality, an event used and misused often in our society. Spreading morality is something that can be understood, and is a welcome idea at any point in time. But the recent incidents that took place against some women in Pune and other parts of the country raises the question – what is the standard of morality of the so-called moral policing imposed by some people? The objections that they voice nowadays tilt more towards curbing an individual’s choice and freedom and slapping the codes and the norms of the “Indian culture” highly misunderstood by these goons, rather than trying to spread morality.
Justify the statement – ‘Why moral policing takes over the society only when routine policing fails’
Moral policing has become increasingly common in India due to failure of routine policing:
In India, the Sections 292 to 294 of the Indian Penal Code are used to deal with obscenity and indecent behavior in public. There is no proper definition of an indecent behavior/obscene act and it is “highly ambiguous” and “open to interpretation”. It places too much arbitrary power in the hands of the police. It is frequently used by the police to justify acts of moral policing.
Police reluctant to lodge a formal complaint or investigation – Instead of implementing the law, the police themselves harbor patriarchal attitudes which make them ignore offences against women.
Policemen themselves engage in moral policing, due to their increasing intolerance and feudal mind set, rather than enforce the routine policing adhering strictly to laws
Police main responsibility is to maintain law and order, security of women and others. The lacuna in this strategy (often under the influence of local political powers) leads to some groups to take law and order in hand with respect to moral policing.
Lack of will and ability on part of the governments and police to deal with such anti-social elements is troubling and it is this lackadaisical attitude which emboldens them.
The administration acts so slowly and in such a callous manner that citizens prefer to do away with their rights so as to avoid the wrath of these goondas.
Routine policing needs to inculcate certain provisions like – protect the fundamental rights guaranteed i.e., police should be made aware of all the rights and its wider interpretation from time to time; sensitization of the police force to the cause of women and related issues; police should adopt proactive approach towards the culprit and those section of society who practice these sort of moral policing acts (such as Khap panchayats)
Structural reformation of the police force and inclusion of more women is need of an hour today when women’s presence is growing in professional fields and they have become assertive of their rights. Adhering to these routine policing provisions would reduce the incidents of the so called ‘(im)moral policing’.
Best answer: Naveen
Moral policing is more like policing act adopted by section of society to uphold the subjective moral norms. Morality is outbreeding of the value which has individualized personifications and cultural linkages attached. What is considered moral in one culture might not be so in other like; shaking hands in west and doing namaste in India.
Recent incident in Pune, where the women became the victim of this practice on account of not wearing proper attire as per the cultural norm reflects the vacuum whereby the routine policing have failed in order to protect law and order. Along with that in a diverse country like India, where different cultures amalgamate and yet do not lose their identity the act of policing to protect fundamental rights becomes more needy and challenging.
Routine policing failed because;
> Bureaucratic apathy [lackadaisical attitude]
> Political nexus [as evident in khap panchayts where police is unwilling to take action]
> Less prevalence of community policing [people are scared to work with police and not enough community police centers]
> Feudal mind set affected the police force structure [consider themselves to be the masters]
> Police being state subject faces maximum intervention by the state political parties to propagate their ideological lines
Routine policing needs to inculcate certain provisions like;
> protect the fundamental rights guaranteed [police should be made aware of all the rights and its wider interpretation from time to time]
> Sensitization of the police force to the cause of women and related issues [needed in patriarchal society]
> Police should adopt proactive approach towards the culprit and those section of society who practice these sort of moral policing acts [khap are the ones]
> Structural reformation of the police force and inclusion of more women is need of an hour [today when women’s presence is growing in professional fields and they have become assertive of their rights]
Society is reflection of beliefs held by section of people living in particular region. Today when the other situations are changing [economic and political] which society is accepting for their good, it should also become flexible in molding other cultural beliefs also, if not that then they should not at least take law into their hands.
3. India had already missed the export led industrialization bus and needs a different jobs strategy. Critically examine.
When India was promoting license quota policies in 1960-70, countries in South East Asia were preparing themselves to open their economy. Transformation in that time period helped China, Singapore, and other nations for faster economic growth and today they are closer to developed nation category. Now India needs to do something out of box rather following similar path.
Only 14 percent of total workforce is currently employed in secondary sector. Such plight is sum total of various checks and red tapes which hindered the sector growth. Keeping in mind the demographic dividend of the country different job strategies are needed.
Export led industrialization:
India has comparative advantage in providing relatively cheaper goods which is in demand by new emerging economies like Nigeria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Cuba, Afghanistan and other Asian, African and Latin American countries.
India has geographical advantage to trade with Middle East, Africa and Asian economies.
India can fulfill the defense machinery requirement of countries like Afghanistan, Vietnam, and Seychelles etc through export led production.
Good policy can merge FDI with Swadeshi to generate good job opportunity for MSME.
India is a leader in Agriculture. Food processing industry, which generates huge job opportunity in supply chain, can be developed for export.
Three out of our top 10 exports are raw materials in which other countries already have an export lead (e.g.: gems, oil, and cotton).
Manufactured goods from our top 10 exports are also heavily produced by other developing countries (e.g.: clothing from Bangladesh/China, electronic equipment from China/Korea).
Heavy investment in technology and infrastructure needed to compete on a global scale.
Any fall in demand would hit the economy hard (e.g.: Saudi Arabia struggling after oil price drop).
Would need diversion of resources from existing industries and re-training of manpower.
Different job strategy:
Approaches like Blue economy, Sagarmala, revised SEZ policy needs to be implemented without delay.
Focus on infrastructure development like industrial corridors, economic corridors, dedicated freight corridors, better transportation etc., to enhance economies of scale.
Promoting R&D, creating conducive environment for investments, FDIs, Start-ups etc., for expanding economic base.
India has great potential in service sector exports including human resources, so we need to put more emphasis on skill development.
India is known for its quality doctors and other health professionals, IT professionals, Field workers in Middle Eastern countries and such other jobs. Skills training under Skill development programme can be extensively used to impart training in such high demanding jobs.
Initiative likes Make in India, Start UP and Stand UP India: Advantage can be taken to divert the quality workforce meet the requirement of workforce created due to such initiatives.
while it seems the peak time of leveraging export based industrialization is over, India should think of getting the answer towhat still can be exported and to whom, if not conventional commodities, as “a good product finds its market itself”, to stride towards and become an industrial powerhouse.
There exist already challenging situation for export to pick up as global economy is at lowest , also India need to overcome the challenge imposed by regional groupings like TPP, TTAP etc which could divert the share of India’s export in favor to their member countries.
IASbaba imparts 360-degree IAS preparation solutions with their exhaustive Prelims and Mains preparation courses, supported by the latest UPSC preparation material. Avail our expert help by enrolling with us to keep your knowledge updated and stay ahead of your competition.
Most Trending and Trusted Programmes by UPSC Toppers :