1. There are two schools of thoughts with regards to strategy adopted to reform education and health sectors in India. One of them advocates larger role of the private sector while the other emphasizes upon a state administered framework. What do you think in this regard? Substantiate your viewpoint.
(You should give a balance answer instead of taking a side)
Introduction: Your introduction should talk about the present condition of education and health sector in India.
Heath spending is 1.2% (less than recommended 5 % in Draft national health policy).
Education spending is 3.5% (way less than the recommended 6% by T S R Subrmaniyam committee).
Arguments in favour of public spending:
Large % of population is poor
Faith of people
Legitimacy of government
principle of equality
Arguments in opposition of public spending
Lack of success in past
lack of professionalism
low quality service
Apart from above points,
Few more Positives/negatives of Private involvement
deprived sections often neglected,
profit oriented – lack of regulation, high fees etc.
You should say that even though both of them their own positives and negatives but going by the statistics we need participation from both sides to utilize India’s demographic dividend properly by providing better health and education services.
Best answer 1: vengeancee
Scholars and technocrats have recently been divided on viewpoint whether private sector led education and health reforms or Government led measures.
Arguments favoring both viewpoints are enormous, but relatively Government led reforms move ahead in the race because:
1) Zero Profit Motive: of Government enterprise which makes servicing at lesser cost.
2) Inclusive reach: as developmental concerns of Government is not area or region specific, but in totality.
3) Basic needs: health, educations are some of the common minimum needs which are uncompromisable due to any lacunae.
4) Faith of people: in Government led initiatives which make participation more effective & successful.
5) Legitimacy of Government: is built when society feels its efforts, and this in turn strengthens democracy.
Private sector led reforms may be non-feasible as:
1) Unsustainable: if profit making is not ensured and such initiatives don’t demand profit motives.
2) Inequitable servicing: by private sector, as admission chances more for those who may afford.
3) Regionally biased: as urban areas are hub of private sector instead of rural.
4) Lack of success in past: towards providing comprehensive growth targets. Ex: RTE implementation of 25% admission of economically weaker section.
However, with current spending on health & education hovering at around 4%, is much below than desired 6%. Without funds, Government or Non-Government led reforms may not get any success.
Effective implementation of RTE, 2009 , TSR Committee Recommendations, bringing gender parity, health insurance coverage, managing out-of-pocket expense are some of the urgent steps needed.
Best answer 2: naadan parinda
Recent TSR Subraniam Committee report has shown abysmal performance of education level in India. Similarly, National family health survey report has shown the inadequacies present in health sector. This has brought forward a debate on which path to proceed on-Public or Private. Both these routes have their positives and negatives like-
>Public sector= gains-will ensure affordable access, follow principle of equality hence save weaker sections from getting sidelined.
However some negatives are- lack of professionalism, corruption, inefficient working and low quality service
>Private sector= gains-better management, quality ensured, professionalism negatives-deprived sections often neglected, more belief in making profits
There a proper strategy to bring in reforms in health and education sector would be to bring in an evolved mechanism. Government should be the torch-bearer and private sectors should participate to work on field.
This would proceed as-
>Govt to go into PPP mode where it would provide funding in rational proportion(VGF)
>private sectors will have to work on ground and further disbursal of funds to be on basis of their performance
>private sector needs to ensure quality service to weaker sections. This record to be effectively monitored by government
>Bringing in participation of local people with proper feedback mechanism in place and if possible, going for social audits (kerala model)
>maintaining transparency through updated data availability and framework be designed which fixes accountability to persons concerned (under digital India pillar)
>going in for cross-subsidization so that economic interests of privates isn’t hampered. Also providing them with suitable incentives in future projects in ethical manner (csr benefits and preferential shares in public sectors)
In this way we can bring in the required change by taking positives of both these schools and reducing the negatives.
2.The manufacturing sector has the potential to become the driver of growth in India. The government through its interventions and policies has tried to make manufacturing a dynamic sector, one of which is the emphasis on skill development. Examine the policies and interventions in the area of skill development and also evaluate their effectiveness.
Your Introduction should include the present condition of manufacturing sector and also mention the potential of Manufacturing sector in providing jobs to the masses. Skilling India is one of the major cornerstone of that strategy.
Skill India needs an institutional effort with proper integration with corporate sector/ private sector.
Major initiatives by the Government of India:
Pradhan mantri kaushal vikas yojana
Deen Dayal Upadhyan Antyoday yojana
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development (USTTAD)
These schemes should be evaluated in terms of output, process, job creation, suitability and linkages with the market.
Your conclusion should say that though various efforts had been made earlier but the lack of inter linkages with industry and out of sync with market demand led to negative results. Recent initiatives are tailor made to the present scenario which will improve the overall results in the country.
A country cannot progress economically with a weak manufacturing base Productivity growth and technological advancement lie at the root of economic development, which is why manufacturing is so important. Most of the technological breakthrough has been due to the inventions of machines like steam engines, aeroplanes, ships etc which is associated with manufacturing sector. Hence manufacturing is the driver of growth Manufacturing is also important for creating good jobs. This sector also lays emphasis on skill development.
Policies by government in the field of skill development:
1) Pradhan mantri kaushal vikas yojana: scheme aims for recognition and standardisation of skills
2) Deen Dayal Upadhyan Antyoday yojana: scheme for the helping the poor by providing skill training.The aim of scheme is skill development of both rural and urban India.
3)Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana : is a youth employment scheme. It aims to target youth, under the age group of 15–35 years and enhance the employability of rural youth.
4)Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development (USTTAD) :The Scheme aims at upgrading Skills and Training of minority communities by preservation of traditional ancestral Arts and Crafts.
5)Nai Manzil for skill development among women in J&K
6) MANAS scheme: MANAS will focus on providing skills, upgrading abilities and training members of minority and will also train people so that they may be self-employed.
The above schemes show the desperate efforts of government to fully utilize the demographic dividend. More success can be bought about by creating more awareness regarding this. The impact of this schemes will create more employment and quality demographic dividend.
3. The government must understand the difference between the role of a facilitator and that of a guardian as far as its higher education policies are concerned. Critically examine
Role as a facilitator:
Allowing the entry of foreign universities to set-up campuses, this will help not only in bringing in quality in the education but will also encourage competition, both from the public as well as private universities.
Revising and reviewing the role of regulators, so that standards of education are constantly revised and enlarged to ensure speedy setting up of universities and quality assurance.
Allowing large private sector investment in education by providing necessary subsidies are sops through land, amenities and funding for research.
Encouraging collaboration between public and private universities in research fields, so that one can benefit from expertize of the other.
Collaboration between academia and industry must be encouraged so that the universities don’t teach outdated curriculum, and the industry needs of skilled workers are easily met.
Role as a guardian:
It will ensure a right based approach in higher education, access for middle and poor class and especially marginalized communities will improve. It acts an enabler for people in quest of pursuing higher education at affordable rate.
The autonomy and procedural independence must be ensured so that academic policies are not changed with the change in government.
Government needs to increase the spending on education from 2% of GDP to 4% so that growing youth population is adequately equipped with the skills and expertise.
Government cannot leave whole of education system to private sector as it will lead to inequalities, instead government has to the first instance provider of it.
(Provide a brief Introduction and Conclusion.)
Best answer: Vinay D
The debate over mode of higher education access in India is an old one. The recent discussion over allowing foreign universities to setup their offshore campus in India is a new development is an afterthought by government to improve education standards in India. Moreover the low ranking by Indian universities in global ranking has paved way for improvement in AICTE, UGC and new education policy. The whole issue can be summarized by looking two different policies posturing by government. Let us look at these.
Benefits in facilitator role for government.
1) Unnecessary process hurdles will not be there for starting any new avenues of higher education facilities.
2) Encourage large Pvt investment in the area including participation of top foreign universities in opening thier campuses in India.
Benefits in guardian role of government
1) It will ensure a right based approach in higher education, access for middle and poor class and especially marginalised communities will improve. It acts an enabler for people in quest of pursuing higher education at affordable rate.
2) It improves the higher education rate in the country. The number of people migrating for higher education can be checked upon thus stopping Brian drain.
Limitations as a facilitator role
1) It will endeavour bad effects of market forces by enabling only certain section of society to pursue higher education. Widening the social gap in the process.
2) It can increase the level of competition to cut throat level between Pvt players thus causing serious quality compromise on education standards.
Limitations as a role of guardian
1) It needs a huge investment and diversified approach. The current spending of only 2% GDP on overall education will not suffice.
2) It can promote anti competive practices in acquiring licences for private players thus making way for corrupt practices.
4. India has no other way but to improve its ‘ease of doing business’ scenario, if it’s most important manufacturing campaign ‘Make in India’ has to be successful. Elucidate.
World Bank had mentioned that India is a difficult place to do business and that the country needs various reforms to improve its ranking in the global ‘Doing Business Index’.
India has been ranked 130 among the 189 countries in the latest report of the World Bank.
‘Make in India’ initiative is targeted towards making the country an important investment destination and a global hub for manufacturing, design and innovation.
The ‘Make in India’ initiative aims to achieve the objective by creating an investor friendly environment, modern and efficient infrastructure, opening of new sectors to FDI and forging partnership between government and industry through a “positive mindset”.
The “Make in India” initiative is based on four pillars, which have been identified to give boost to entrepreneurship in India, not only in manufacturing but also other sectors. Among which ‘ease of doing business’ is recognized as the single most important factor to promote entrepreneurship.
Explain some of the ‘ease of doing business’ criteria and its importance:
Starting a Business;
Dealing with construction permits;
protecting minority rights;
labour market regulation etc
The above mentioned criteria are the backbone of the manufacturing sector and to make ‘Make in India’ a success. Need of the hour is to improve upon on these parameters as EODB index is the first basis upon which a foreigner decides to invest in any country and its improvement is very important to make Make in India a grand success.
5. “The desired maternal and child health outcomes cannot be achieved unless the adolescent health concerns are addressed adequately”. In light of the given statement, discuss the government initiatives aimed at improving adolescent health in India.
In the light of the given statement means you need to connect the two issues- i.e. maternal and child health, and Adolescent health, in your introduction.
In a few statements write why there is a need for adolescent care.
Now while dealing with adolescent health, you need to remember that there are several aspects of health, (nicely highlighted by ‘Meena’). Health issues can be- Physical health, reproductive health and behavioural/psychological health. Just mention these aspects. You don’t need to describe them in detail.
(This complete thing from introduction to mentioning different health aspects should not take more than 60 words. Many of you have spent more than half words in your answer to describe them.)
The question is exactly asking to discuss the government initiatives aimed at improving the adolescent health.
Firstly, you need to mention all the central initiatives, directly aimed at adolescent health.
The following link contains all the schemes started by the Central Government.
(This link was provided to us by ‘The Leiter’, in the TLP discussion. Thank you Leiter for simplifying our work.)
After central schemes you can mention some important state schemes like: Amma Unavagam (Tamil Nadu), Arogya Lakshmi (Telangana) etc.
Conclude the answer in 2-3 lines.
Best Answer: Deepshikha
An Adolescent is a sensible citizen in making which makes adolescence a crucial stage of life that needs to be invested with lot of care , nurturing and support so that he/she can become an aware and responsible decision maker.
Adolescent age involves sound accomplishment of reproductive rights which involves better awareness about sex education, maternal and infant health care, awareness about HIV aids/T.B. and other sexual, oral health and lifestyle related concerns, Anemia – Menstrual health and hygiene further there are plenty of behavioral and social challenges adolescents faces which needs to be taken care by peers family and the society holistically.
Government initiatives aimed at improving adolescent health in India:
National Aids Prevention and Control Policy focusing upon Directly Observed Treatment Short Courses , information and education communication including social mobilisation through NGOs .
National program for Adolescent girls , Swach Vidyalaya Abhiyan , Mid day Meal Scheme , Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Abhiyan , Sabla for proper health and educational development of Adolescents with special focus on girl child .
Arogya Lakshmi , Amma Unavagan , etc for maternal health development .
National Food Security Mission for overall development of men and women.
Cancer Care and Prevention Policy in India : keeping in mind the Knowledge , Attitude Pattern in mind dedicated towards overcoming Breast , Cervical , Lung , Stomach , etc related Cancer Further there is an urgent need to set in policy framework to target lifestyle based diseases like diabetes , thyroid , etc which are visible at the onset of puberty .
We also need to put in place an altogether new Adolescent health insurance policies . Attention is also required to gear up to face several psycho- social issues like drug abuse , alcohol abuse , women oriented violence , etc .