1. The UN is the only universal body we all have, the one organization to which every country in the world belongs; if it is discredited, the world as a whole will lose an institution that is irreplaceable. Critically comment.
The United Nations is the one universal body we all have, the one organization to which every country in the world belongs; if it is discredited, the world as a whole will lose an institution that is truly irreplaceable.
As the most representative inter-governmental organization of the world today, the United Nations’ role in world affairs is irreplaceable by any other international or regional organizations.
The United Nations has made enormous positive contributions in maintaining international peace and security, promoting cooperation among states and international development.
Human rights abuses usually take place within states, often in civil wars, so the UN has no mandate to intervene directly against them – as it was explicitly set up with a policy of non-interference in internal affairs it is unfair to count this a failure. Nonetheless, it has placed human rights on the international agenda, making billions of people aware of what are considered norms and shaming many regimes into improving their policies.
Other organisations have also been important in bringing greater peace and prosperity to the world, but none have the authority the UN derives from the participation of almost every state in the world. In international crises the Security Council is the forum for discussion, deal-making, arbitration and understanding. The UN has also made huge contributions to global progress through its agencies, particularly those dealing with refugees, the World Health Organisation and Unicef. By its efforts smallpox has been eliminated, healthcare improved and education promoted.
Today, people of the world still face the two major issues of peace and development. Only by international cooperation can mankind meet the challenges of the global and regional issues. The United Nations can play a pivotal and positive role in this regard.
Strengthening the role of the United Nations in the new century and promoting the establishment of a just and reasonable international political and economic order goes along with the trend of history and is in the interest of all nations.
In order to strengthen the role of the United Nations, efforts should be made to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. The authority of the Security Council in maintaining international peace and security must be preserved and role of the United Nations in development area should be strengthened. To strengthen the role of the United Nations, it is essential to ensure to all Member States of the United Nations the right to equal participation in international affairs and the rights and interests of the developing countries should be safeguarded.
Best answer: abhishekrwt597
The United Nations(UN) is an international intergovernmental organization, that was formed after the second world war. As a successor to the league of nations, it formation was driven largely ensure world peace and prevent a future catastrophe of similar magnitude. Lately, questions have been raised over the relevance of the UN, with the following justifications provided:
1)Failure to ensure World Peace(The Iraq invasion, the Libyan toppling, etc happened in violation of UN protocol, and with little consequences, North Korea)
2) Changing world order(Emergence of global south and G4 UNSC bid), not reflected in a UN based on PostWW2 geopolitics(thwarted by leading powers).
3)Alternate institutions have emerged dealing with most of UN functions(G2’s role in eco recovery,G8’s role in global politics, etc) that make its relevance questionable.
4)New challenges have emerged(Cyber Security, Global commons, Climate Change) that the UN lacks the institutional expertise to deal with.
However, the need for a UN is acute as:
1)The only credible, respected and truly global organization.
2)A forum to engage in debates and discussions to resolve global issues(Jaw Jaw always better-Churchill)
3)The only way to ensure global(near) consensus on critical issues(Eg UNFCCC)
4)Continues to be relevant to Global security and Human rights(UNCHR role, UNPKF,ec)
5)The only way to deal with rogue or belligerent nations, without escalation fears(Sanctions against Iran, Russia, North Korea)
The UN thus continues to be relevant even today, and any talks of its replacement, specially minus a viable alternative, are only immature.
2. What is Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)? what is its mandate? Recently, India’s bid for the membership of NSG couldn’t succeed? Why? Examine.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports.
The NSG Guidelines also contain the so-called “Non-Proliferation Principle,” adopted in 1994, whereby a supplier, notwithstanding other provisions in the NSG Guidelines, authorises a transfer only when satisfied that the transfer would not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Non-Proliferation Principle seeks to cover the rare but important cases where adherence to the NPT or to a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty may not by itself be a guarantee that a State will consistently share the objectives of the Treaty or that it will remain in compliance with its Treaty obligations.
The NSG Guidelines are consistent with, and complement, the various international, legally binding instruments in the field of nuclear non-proliferation. These include
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)
South Pacific Nuclear-Free-Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)
African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba)
Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok
Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Semipalatinsk).
The NSG Guidelines are implemented by each Participating Government (PG) in accordance with its national laws and practices.
Why India want to join NSG? (for knowledge purpose – You can mention it in brief)
For energy security, India want to expand it Nuclear energy production. So for that it requires Uranium.
Out of the entire power generated in the country, 2.2% is generated through nuclear power. It is predicted that by 2030, 40% of all the power generated in India would be through nuclear power. Right now, 5,780 MW of power is generated by nuclear energy and by 2032, the target is 63GW.
As NSG controls nuclear trade, being a member of that gives the opportunity to freely use nuclear material and technology from other nations.
India can become an exporter of nuclear energy as being a NSG member would give India access to more fuel and a global market. It will be an opportunity for Indian industry to tap the global market.
The decisions made in NSG are based on consensus of all the members; not the majority. So with this, India will become one of the decision makers regarding the supply of nuclear fuel and technology. It will also give India a boost in Asia’s politics; as China is one of the members of the NSG.
India’s bid for membership of NSG couldn’t succeed due to following reasons
Several countries like China have raised an issue regarding the fact thatIndia hasn’t signed Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) or Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). According to these countries, by signing these international agreements, India will show its commitment to non-proliferation
Why India has not signed NPT? (Additional info)
As per NPT, only the five permanent members of United Nations are allowed to keep and develop nuclear weapons. This treaty is very discriminatory and that is the reason India hasn’t signed this.
Other than China, countries that are opposing India’s inclusion in the NSG are Turkey, South Africa, Ireland and New Zealand.
While considering India’s membership application, the NSG will also have to consider the fact that accepting this application can pose problems on the processing of applications from Pakistan and Israel, both of whom have not signed the NPT.
Membership of NSG will give India an official image of responsible Nuclear power which in turn help it to get entry into UNSC. However, China will not appreciate this gain and move. So, in terms of Geo-political implications also, China is blocking India’s entry
Your conclusion should say that India’s image of a Responsible Nuclear power and its record has helped him to get many supporters in form of US, France etc. However, the entry into NSG will take some time and need great diplomatic efforts and bargain with the dissenting countries especially China.
3. What do you understand by global governance? Why is it necessary in the current era? Examine by taking suitable examples.
A majority of the world population lives in developing and underdeveloped nations and faces the problems of abject poverty, lack of basic amenities like food, shelter, clean water, electricity etc. Basic services and soft infrastructure like education, healthcare and finance is a distant dream for them.
Even though lack of resources is one reason for this, the major reason is the mobilization of resource, which depends on the governance of a country. Governance issues are deeply rooted in the historic and systemic institutional inefficiencies. According to a World bank survey, addressing governance is now at the top of country’s policy priorities.
In order to address this issue, the concept of global governance is coined. It has got nothing to do with a common government. But how the governance practices of different governments are aligned.
World bank has started a Global Governance project. According to the world bank, “The Governance Global Practice (GGP) supports client countries to help them build capable, efficient, open, inclusive, and accountable institutions. This is critical for countries to underpin sustainable growth and is at the heart of the World Bank’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Countries with strong institutions prosper by creating an environment that facilitates private sector growth, reduces poverty, delivers valuable services and earns the confidence of their citizens — a relationship of trust that is created when people can participate in government decision-making and know their voices are heard.”
Improved governance equips IDA countries to create avenues and opportunities for citizen engagement, and help build and maintain trust between the state and citizens. Reducing poverty and promoting shared prosperity is predicated on institutions that are effective in not only solving the problems of the past but responding to the changing needs of the citizens they serve. This involves both strengthening core government systems to channel resources to the poorest 40% of the population, and developing a public sector grounded in transparency and citizen participation.
(Note: You can use an example of an African third world country and mention the lack of governance and condition of people as well as a developing country like India or Brazil where better standard practices should be adopted to improve the condition of people.)
PS: note that global governance is not an infringement in the sovereignty of a country. It has got nothing to do with a common government but to establish uniform governance parameters in different types of government. Since most of the answers are deviated in the concept, we are not providing any best answer here.
4. India recently joined the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). What will be its implications for India? Discuss.
Your introduction should mention about the MTCR.
Established in April 1987, it is a voluntary association of 35 countries — (as India is formally included) — and four “unilateral adherents” that follow its rules: Israel, Romania, Slovakia, Macedonia.
The group aims to slow the spread of missiles and other unmanned delivery technology that could be used for chemical, biological and nuclear attacks.
The regime urges members, which include most of the world’s major missile manufacturers, to restrict exports of missiles and related technologies capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km, or delivering any type of weapon of mass destruction.
Discuss the implications of Joining MTCR for India
Though there are no special concessions for MTCR members in getting missile technology but India hopes its MTCR membership will be one more reason for the US to consider exporting Category 1 UAVs, Reaper and Global Hawk, which have been key to counter-terrorism efforts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen. These drones have so far been sold to only one country, the UK, though unarmed versions have also been made available to Italy and South Korea. The US has been rethinking rules on exports, aware that competitors in Israel, Russia and China are working on similar products — and India wants to be at the head of the queue when the Reaper and the Global Hawk go on the market.
OnceIndia puts in place an appropriate export policy for items covered by the MTCR annex, an argument can be made that the sale of any such systems to India will not lead to any further proliferation.
MTCRmembership will allow India to sell the BrahMos missiles, which it manufactures jointly with Russia, to countries like Vietnam.
It will Boost India’s space program as India can get its hands on sophisticated technology.
It will India a bargaining power with respect to China as China is looking for MTCR seat whereas India is looking for NSG.
Your conclusion should say that the inclusion of India in MTCR is a significant step and it boosts our image in world arena. It will also pave way for us to enter into other major agreements and forums.
Best Answer: -Draconainleothevinci
The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal, voluntary grouping of 35 countries which aims to check the proliferation of missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Implications for India on joining MTCR:
1.Gaining MTCR membership will allow India to sell the BrahMos missiles, which it manufactures jointly with Russia, to countries like Vietnam.
2.ISRO will have reliable access to restricted technologies for developing its cryogenic engines in order to enhance space exploration.
3.MTCR membership will enable India to buy high-end missile technology and also enhance its joint ventures with Russia.
4.India’s entry into the MTCR is a step closer to its Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) membership.
5. The entry into this group will shape the future of India’s engagement with not just the MTCR but also the broader global non-proliferation community.
6.India can now procure technologies to develop its indigenous Ballistic Missile System or missile shield to protect itself from incoming ballistic missiles.
7.India can also source surveillance drones from countries like the US.
8.In a boost to Make in India, Indian technology developed under the initiative will enjoy free movement out of the country, which in turn will contribute to the success of the programme.
9.Now that India is part of MTCR, it can oppose the entry of China and Pakistan should they apply for membership.
Thus membership in MTCR for India will reap benefits in terms of Strategic,economic,scientific gains for India.
5. What do you understand by ‘demonetization’ of currency? Can it effectively tackle the menace of black money? Critically examine.
Start with giving definition about what is demonetization of currency.
Since it’s critically examine, you have to write two sides of the answer. Both pros and cons in giving weightage to one and lesser to another, don’t balance it to 50-50%.
Write how it will tackle black money:
-Talk about fear in minds of people which makes them to bring out hidden cash for exchange and getting caught.
-How it will make huge currencies without proper accounts will be seized along with 200% penalty.
-How it will automatically reduce black money since huge unaccounted cash can neither be converted nor exchanged and it becomes just a paper without any value.
-How it will curb fake currencies coming along the border to have no value or help in terror related funding’s.
Mention few points about drawbacks:
-How huge black money are kept outside country and has no effect on them.
-Mention about how black money are kept in form of bullion, real estate and Benami account.
Talk about how income can be shown as agriculture and diverted into white or people giving huge commission to agriculture land holders and getting it converted.
End with saying how this is a first giant step and how in future many more steps should be taken which includes bringing black money from abroad also.
‘Demonetization’ of currency refers to banning old currency notes/coins’ status of ‘LEGAL TENDER’ and replacing them with new currency notes/coins.
Demonetization of Rs 500/- and Rs 1000/- notes, which form 80% of total cash circulation, can tackle the menace of black money by:
(1) The unaccounted currency notes will come into notice of income tax officials, if the mismatch is very high.
(2) By enforcing tax on deposit more than Rs 2.5 lakhs and 200% penalty on mismatch, WARNING will be served to the WILLFUL DEFAULTERS, thus DEMOTIVATING people to indulge in such activities.
(3) The quantum of unaccounted money in circulation will be captured by this process.
(4) Fake currency notes in use till now will be eliminated.
However, it will not wholly solve the problem of black money because:
(1) Black money invested in material items like Gold, Real Estate cannot be retrieved.
(2) Black money lying in Swiss Bank or converted into Dollars is still out of reach of banks.
(3) People may convince their relatives who possess less cash holdings to get their notes deposited in their bank accounts.
Black money has led to creation of ‘PARALLEL ECONOMY’ which is harming the economy of India, financing anti-social and terrorist activities thereby causing decay in development of India, and hence need stringent steps like this.