1. The para military forces in India are mandated with crucial roles in India’s internal security ecosystem. However, there are pressing issues related to parity with the armed forces, infrastructure and basic amenities which hamper the morale of their personnel. Examine the issue and suggest ways to address the same.
It is ironical that paramilitary forces, which are tasked with doing the job of both the army and the police in guarding the borders as well as battling terrorists and insurgents, are not even considered an organised service.
Forces that come under Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF)
CRPF (Central reserve Police Force)
ITBP (Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force)
BSF (Border Security Force)
SSB (Shashtra Seema Bal)
CISF (Central industrial security force)
There are three Central Paramilitary force:
Special Frontier Force
The Coast Guard
(Debates and discussions about the work conditions, stress levels, pay scale etc has been going on in Parliament for some time now and several steps have been taken. But the debate has been triggered again because of the video shared by a BSF jawaan.)
Important issues with Para military forces:
High attrition rate – resignation and voluntary retirement. (>16k left from 2012 -2015)
Shortage of man power = heavy workload.
15-18 hours continuous duty, sometimes not even allowed to sit down (e.g. CISF jawans on airport).
Suicides and “Fratricide” i.e. soldiers killing their colleagues and seniors in frustration. >400 died in last 5 years.
If a soldier dies on duty, his family doesn’t receive compensation on time.
Top post occupied by IPS officers, who don’t understand the plight of the force. They just consider it as time pass short stint.
Often, no family accommodate at posting areas. Even education, healthcare, water and electricity is erratic in their government quarters.
There is no concept of peace posting. No break in duty. 80% of the personnel never get to live with their family during entire posting.
Career promotion system not as smoothly organized as in army. These officers donot get same pay and perks like others in “Organized” Group-A central services.
No hardship allowance or risk allowance (recently HM agreed to fix this)
Even when transferred, they don’t get transfer allowance.
One of the most painful grievances is that, that if they lose their life in service, they don’t get the martyr status, which is probably the most important motivational factor for any soldier.
(Since the question is asking you to examine these problems, you’ll have to write a line or two on these points.)
Government has taken certain steps to improve these conditions like:
Monetary benefits under Modified Assured Career Progression (MACP) – given after 12,24 and 36 years of service. In other words, even if you don’t get promotion, you still get higher pay-scale.
Grievance redressal mechanism
Improved living condition
STD calling facility to family members.
Better Risk allowance
Yoga, meditation, canteen and recreational facilities
Hardship allowance in naxal area will be similar to what they get in J&K and North East. (meaning a constable will get ~8000 extra per month)
After completing tenure in naxal area, they will get posting in the area of their choice. (Inspired from American model in Afghanistan)
Out of turn promotion for exceptional service and bravery.
Some of the steps that should be taken to address the problem of stress and service conditions are:
Timely vacations to the troops so that they can get more chance to meet their families.
Forces should be headed by a chief promoted from the force so that he can relate to the problems and take necessary action.
Corruption should be checked in the top brass.
Services should be brought under ‘Organised’ services so that personnel can avail proper perks and get timely promotions.
Humane living conditions at the area of posting should be provided which include proper clean residence and descent food.
Grievance redressal mechanism should be strengthened.
Special therapy sessions should be there with psychologist to check the stress level of the troops.
2. Discuss the role of National Investigation Agency (NIA). Are there impediments in its proper functioning? Critically examine.
National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a central agency established by the Indian Government in 2009 to combat terror in India.
It acts as the Central Counter Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency. The agency is empowered to deal with terror related crimes across states without special permission from the states.
NIA has concurrent jurisdiction which empowers the Central Agency to probe terror attacks in any part of the country, covering offences, including challenge to the country’s sovereignty and integrity, bomb blasts, hijacking of aircraft and ships, attacks on nuclear installations.
Impediments in the working of NIA:
Lack of Power: Although the cases that come under NIA are defined straight forward, its power to execute a terror prevention drive/surveillance or search and rescue operation is limited. The cases related to terrorism and wide and requires effective ground level influence to tackle.
2.Lack of capacity: The agency lacks in its capacity to tackle modern terrorist techniques. Many times it has to outsource its functions to industrial experts which is not a positive direction considering the confidentiality and nature of investigation. Lack of trained man power and other resources also hurts/delays investigation.
3.Lack of Cooperation/Coordination: Vital resources are misused/wasted due improper coordination between intelligence agencies such as IB, RAW, State/Central Police Intelligence Wing etc.
Lack of manpower: of the sanctioned strength of 865 officers there are only 649 positions filled, rest are taken from deputation from different central and state agencies.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Anand
NATIONAL INVESTIGATION AGENCY IS central agency specially constituted to combat terrorism,terrorist activities and investigate terror attakcs throughout india.
It was formed after 2008 MUMBAI terror attacks.
NIA has achieved great success in probing terror cases right from inception.
NIA with international cooperation from saudi arabia caught ABU JUNDAL AND YASEEN BHATKAL for terror activities in india.
IMPEDIMENTS IN ITS WORKING
1-nia has overstretched intelligence network but same has not been supported by budgetary allocations
2-NIA has no officers who are specialised in cyber surveillience,explosives, tracing chemicals,nia has to seek help from private companies to decrypt computers or other data.
3-lack of proper synergies between NIA,RAW,IB and state police and state intelligence wings creates hinderances in effective and timely interventions.
4-though NIA has power to start investigations SUO MOTO on centres direction the central govt have been reluctant in granting them authority as it seems encrochment of federal principles.PUNJAB DIDNT ALLOW TO INVESTIGATE IN GURUDASPUR TERROR ATTACK AND CRUCIAL GPS DATA WAS LOST.
5-the budgetary allowcation is very miniscule as compared to vast manpower this impacts training personnel,providing infra like modern foreinsic labs
6-it is understaffed as compared to large terror cases pending for investigation
NIA has an important role in security of india specially when INDIA has to wage proxy war it is time govt brings appropriate changes and create NATIONAL CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE TO train officers
3. Assess the performance of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in the past few years. What measures would you suggest to strengthen this organization? Discuss.
National Disaster management Authority was constituted under the National Disaster Management Act 2005 to prepare plan to prevent, mitigate the losses due to Natural and man-made disasters.
NDMA prepares plans and guidelines for the states to follow in order to prepare prevention and mitigation plans.
It provides inputs and advice to the state regarding development plans.
It advises the state regarding the skills, training and management of State Disaster Response Forces.
NDMAs working has been exemplary in terms of preventing damage and evacuations during the Roanu in Odisha and Hudhud in Andhra Pradesh.
Again MDMA has done excellent work w.r.t the earth quake in Nepal aiding in evacuation and search and rescue operations.
Measures to strengthen the NDMA:
Disaster Planning has been very slow, the National disaster Plan was unveiled only in 2016, 10 years after NDMA’s inception, and government must be proactive in terms of planning efforts not reactive.
The National Executive Committee (NEC) of the NDMA which is responsible for coordinating efforts during the disaster should meet more often at least twice in a year.
Disaster Mitigation Funds should be constituted at the earliest at all the levels, i.e., Centre, State and the District levels.
The National Disaster Communication Network and the National Disaster Management Informatics System were still being planned by the NDMA, and another project, the satellite based communication network, had not been made fully operational. these should be made functional as soon as possible
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Arjun
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has been created with the vision “To build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, pro-active, technology driven and sustainable development strategy that involves all stakeholders and fosters a culture of prevention, preparedness and mitigation”. It has been mandated with laying down policies on disaster management and guidelines which would be followed by different ministries, departments of the Government of India and State Governments in taking measures for disaster risk reduction.
Drawbacks of the organization
• preparedness and coordination are NDMAs functions but it is not delivered effectively as seen in the recent floods and cyclones
• lack of implementation capacity in state level.no mechanism to get states to prepare for calamities they might be vulnerable to in most cases.
• NDMA does not have an effective say in regulating the rules of construction in earthquake of flood prone areas
• There are also no standard operating procedures on how various departments should react in the event of an earthquake or flood.
Suggestions to strengthen NDMA
• the organization has to be more equipped technically and in man power.
• All states and districts are supposed to have disaster management authorities, which is as of now implemented in only 11 states.
• A proper coordination mechanism has to be there between the concerned organizations like IMD, Defence and NDMA to prevent disaster as well as ensure speedy recovery.
• core advisory committee of experts has to be formed who advises it on different aspects of disaster management at the national, state or district level.
• National Executive Committee which meets occasionally has to be changed and mandatory meeting in every 6 months have to be done to ensure periodic review or projects
4. The growing synergy between India and the Middle East is a testimony to the economic and strategic importance of this region for India. Elucidate.
India looks at the Middle East and Gulf region as part of its ‘extended neighbourhood’ with only the Arabian Sea in between. The region is significant to India in geopolitical, strategic and changed economics of the current day world.
Question provides a statement and asks us to clarify the same by explaining clearly the importance of Middle East for India (esp. economic and strategic importance).
Under economic importance, focus on –
How the region is important for India in regard to energy security – as a source of oil and an oil services market.
How Indian elites and businesses are keen on pursuing opportunities in investment, sale of consumer goods and tourism.
India, as an IT superpower, sees a profitable market for itself in the GCC – where internet security is a pressing issue for both governments and businesses.
The bulk of India’s trade is with the GCC states, especially with Saudi Arabia. A major portion of India’s energy supplies have traditionally come from the Arab countries. Around six million Indians are employed in the GCC, whose presence not only eases the unemployment problem in India, but also results in substantial remittances.
Under strategic importance:
India has sought to utilise Iran and the GCC states support in order to boost its power base on the international stage.
New Delhi is eager to enhance its ties with Saudi Arabia so to improve its standing amongst its Muslim population and the Muslim world.
To contain China and Chinese influence (OBOR) in the region
5. What are Non Performing Assets (NPA)? Why are they detrimental for the economy? Examine.
As per Reserve Bank of India (RBI), an asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank. A ‘Non-Performing Asset’ (NPA) was defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and/ or instalment of principal has remained ‘past due’ for a specified period of time. NPAs are further categorized depending upon the time periods for which the payments have been overdue.
It is a classification used by financial institutions that refer to loans that are in jeopardy of default. Once the borrower has failed to make interest or principal payments for 90 days the loan is considered to be a non-performing asset.
Why NPAs are detrimental for the economy?
Depositors do not get rightful returns and many times may lose uninsured deposits. Bank shareholders are adversely affected.
When bank do not get loan repayment or interest payments, liquidity problems may ensue.
Banks may begin charging higher interest rates on some products to compensate Non-performing loan losses.
In an environment of thin margins and massive global competition, the domestic businesses cannot pay higher rates of interest for their borrowings and survive when their global competitors are getting funds very cheap interest rates. We cannot fight any serious price wars internationally with these circumstances. Most of the global players are immensely helped by the lower cost of their borrowings and are providing cheaper options, even in Indian market. This will lead to higher negative balance of trade and also to the destruction of domestic industry resulting in large unemployment and social unrest. A largely young nation like India, wherein millions are joining job market year after year cannot afford such a condition.
Bad loans imply redirecting of funds from good projects to bad ones. Hence, the economy suffers due to loss of good projects and failure of bad investments.
The most important implication of the NPA is that a bank can neither credit the income nor debit to loss, unless either recovered or identified as loss. If a borrower has multiple accounts, all accounts would be considered NPA if one account becomes NPA.
Like any other economy the domestic savings form a large part of investment needed. The lower rate of interest on deposits in a high inflationary economy will adversely affect the domestic savings and thereby the domestic investment.
With massive rise in NPAs, investor confidence decreases which would curtail capital inflow into the country and tarnish the image of the economy at global level.
Best answer 1: Raghav
Non performing assets refers to the loans given by banks on which principal or interest payment remains overdue for a period of 90 days
DIRECT NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF NPA ON INDIAN ECONOMY
i. Credit service is one of the key service of the bank. With NPAs, banks will not be able to afford credit facilities effectively
ii. Non performing assets can result in decreased money flow in the economy
iii. Profitability and reliability of banks will reduce and this can have serious impact on both domestic and international arena
iv. NPA can result in Slow down of economic growth especially in primary and secondary sector industries
v. Shares of bank in stock markets will go down and investors will hesitate to invest in bank shares
vi. With NPA, money laundering crimes and black money will increase
vii. NPA can result inlowering the value of Indian currency in international market
INDIRECT NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF NPA ON INDIAN ECONOMY
i. With reduced credit facilities, Self Help Groups which are the drivers of rural economy will be heavily impacted
ii. With less money in circulation, money available for government development schemes will reduce
iii. Agricultural and industrial productivity is widely dependent on credit facilities. With less available credit productivity will slow down
iv. NPA will result in less credit facilities thereby Private consumption and expenditure will reduce
v. Investments in real estate and housing will reduce
vi. Reduced credit facilities can affect Entrepreneurship ventures
vii. Increased insolvency
viii. Credit facilities is widely sought by public for investment in priority areas such transport, education, renewable energy ventures, small scale industries etc. With NPA credit available for such sectors will be reduced
ix. Employment opportunities will reduce because of less available credit for self employment ventures
Measures such as SARFESI act must be implemented effectively for reducing the detrimental effects of NPA on Indian economy
Best answer 2: Mary
When payment towards a loan is deferred more than 90 days, the loan is classified as a Non Performing Asset as it is seen as a loss to the bank due to strains in recovering the loan. Such loan defaults reflect badly on the health card of any economy due to following reasons:-
With increasing loan defaults banks would find it difficult to pay back its depositors which raises the threats of bankruptcy.
As NPAs increase banks would be forced to deter further loans by increasing interest rates and this discourages domestic investments.
As investments are discouraged, production decreases which in turn increases unemployment.
This would mean strains in growth of GDP which in turn decreases tax revenue and hence ability of Government to spend on administration and welfare activities creating roadblocks in the development of the economy.
With massive rise in NPAs, investor confidence decreases which would curtail capital inflow into the country and tarnish the image of the economy at global level.
Recently Indian economy has witnessed a rise in NPAs that has hurt private investments badly. As mentioned in the Economic Survey 2016 the Chakravyuha challenge, non-monitored Priority sector lending etc have been responsible for the same. With policies like S4, Bankruptcy Code, amendments to SARFAESI Act etc Government has been fierce in its war against NPAs.
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