1. The surgical strike conducted on the land of Pakistan by India has been a matter of intense debate recently. In the light of global war against terrorism and Indo- Pak relations, what is your opinion on surgical strikes as a weapon to fight terrorism?
A lot was there in the news recently on this topic, so most of you have written similar answers with good content.
Some of the points that are to be kept in mind while writing such an answer:
Be objective. Try not to write an emotional answer. Like you shouldn’t write something like our army is the strongest in the world and we are proud of it because it can break the borders and can get us what is rightfully ours.
Since surgical strikes like the latest one have happened in the past, there must be some strategic importance. So do support the action.
There have been some concerns from the international community and Indian intelligentia, mention them in your answer.
Way forward in fighting terrorism.
Since all the points have already been mentioned in the answers, We are sharing some best answers here.
2. India has high strategic and economic stakes in Afghanistan. Examine.
Write a short introduction.
Assured source of energy resources like natural gas and oil when fears are high on revival of sanctions on Iran.
Market for Indian products as they are cost effective and are safe place for trade amid retreating globalization of goods, service and people in western countries.
Huge investment opportunities for reconstruction and development after decades of instability.
Connects India to central and west Asia via TAPI pipeline, Chabhar port and trilateral road project signed along with Iran.
More than 20 companies have invested in mining operations in Afghanistan, who have locked in their capital for the long term export generated profits.
After the failure of Murree talks Afghanistan is also pushed away from Pakistan. It provided the opportunity for India to consolidate its position against Pakistan’s state sponsored terrorism in international community.
Due to good will diplomacy of India Afghanistan is also more inclined towards increasing its ties with India and can provide a strong partner to contain China in asserting its power in South Asia as well as central Asia.
Common concerns on terrorism as seen during heart of Asia summer and adaptation of Amritsar declaration.
America and Russia are grouping like China and Pakistan so India too needs a reliable partner.
To form a regional alliance due to rising aggressiveness in Pak’s behavior (SAARC minus Pakistan).
India’s military exports, heavy machinery, artillery and attack helicopters to Afghanistan and recent support given by US.
Failed peace process engaging Pak and China now new trilateral grouping -Washington- Kabul-Delhi.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: AbraKaDabra
India and Afghanistan have a strong relationship based on the historic and cultural link. Afghanistan’s importance has been growing in the recent times due to the India’s Economic and Strategic interests in the region:-
i. The ambitious TAPI pipeline project running from Afghanistan which connects energy-rich Central Asia to
ii. Afghanistan is estimated to hold $1 trillion mineral resources, according to US Geology Survey.
iii. It is considered as Gateway to Central Asia, seamless facility of transit through it could prove a major boost to economy (by exports).
iv. Trade potential is huge as India being exporter of the Defence equipments , arms and ammunition, etc. Bilateral Trade stood around $690 million in 2014-15.
i. India’s assistance and development projects – making of Salma dam and Afghanistan Parliament shows India’s presence as a regional leader.
ii. India-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement, 2011 shows the strategic importance of Afghanistan in regional as well as bilateral affairs
iii. Both countries share common concern against cross-border terrorism ,non-state actors and excessive outside presence in the regional affairs.
iv. India has provided around $2 billion financial aid and assistance till date in various ways to promote peace and stability which is crucial for India.
v. Afghanistan acts as a counter-balance against the China-Pak closeness and influence.
3. What can be the possible areas of cooperation between India and it’s small neighbouring countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Srilanka? Discuss.
Write a brief introduction.
Country – Country Cooperation
Nepal: India has contributed to constitution making though it was troublesome. We have invested heavily in infrastructure, power projects, etc. over past few years. Areas like Himalayan tourism, environmental and ecological cooperation, multi-modal train links from various neighboring capital cities. Demand for Indian products is diminishing with the entry of Chinese goods. Nepal plans to stop importing rice from India in the coming decade or so. This has to be taken care of.
Bhutan: With a few miles away from chicken neck, Bhutan is a strategically important country. India can explore opportunities w.r.t hydel power, tourism, cultural relations, etc.
Bangladesh: India can learn from the extraordinary growth of textile industry of Bangladesh. Security and cross border migration is a bone of contention between 2 countries. Exchange of enclaves, pending for decades, paved way for a greater association. India can cooperate in addressing the Rohingya migrants who at times enter Bangladesh. Cooperation is greatly needed in the field of ‘Drug Trafficking’. Proper steps must be taken to curb this menace.
Sri Lanka: India already has a Free Trade Agreement with Sri Lanka, and are discussing agreements in free flow of services, investments and technology
– As part of BIMSTEC, a greater cooperation in areas of free trade, multi-lateral accords, etc. can be looked at. Security drills and naval exercises must be conducted on a regular basis. Docking of Indian naval ships on the shores of Sri Lanka, Bangladesh will re-ascertain Indian naval prowess in Bay of Bengal.
– SAARC satellite, as proposed, will further help in navigation, disaster management, agriculture inputs and space technology.
– BBIN transport corridor will help seamless connectivity between key cities of 4 countries.
– Kaladan Multi Modal corridor can further be expanded to include Nepal which is in a strategically important location.
– A unified security force can be set-up to counter terrorism, militancy, exchange best security practices, etc.
– A water tourism-cum-economic circuit can be set connecting Chennai-Vishakhapatnam-Colombo-Hambantota-Andaman-Kolkata-Dhaka.
4. What is artificial intelligence? Discuss it’s applications.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is an advancement in machine and technology development. It is an extension of cognitive and analytical abilities to machines and particularly to computers.
APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE:
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING:This deals with various areas of research such as data base inquiry system, automatic text indexing, grammar and style analysis of text, machine translation, speech analysis, and speech synthesis.
E.g.: Online and telephone customer service
COMPUTER VISION:This deals with research efforts involving scene analysis, image understanding, and motion derivation.
E.g.: Identifying specific information such as forests, mineral resources, water resources in Satellite image
ROBOTICS:This involves the control of effectors on robots to manipulate or grasp objects, locomotion of independent machines, and use sensory input to guide actions.
E.g.: Assembling parts of a car in automobile industry
PROBLEM SOLVING AND PLANNING:This involves applications such as refinement of high-level goals into lower-level ones, determination of actions needed to achieve goals, revision of plans based on intermediate results, and focused search of important goals.
E.g. Business Analytics
LEARNING: This area of A.I. deals with research into various forms of learning including route learning, learning through advice, learning by example, learning by task performance, and learning by following concepts.
E.g.: Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, maintain book-keeping, invest in stocks, and manage properties, Weather forecasting, Prediction of disasters
EXPERT SYSTEMS:This deals with the processing of knowledge as opposed to the processing data. It involves the development of computer software to solve complex decision problems.
E.g. Computer Aided Design, Computer Aided Instruction, Computer Aided Manufacturing, Clinical Decision Support System in hospitals, Rule based expert systems in Aviation
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Hermione Granger
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science of making a computer, robot or software think intelligently, in a manner similar to the way humans think such as the power of reasoning, learning and problem solving. AI aims to implement human intelligence in machines and create expert systems that can assist it’s users in specific tasks.
APPLICATIONS OF AI
1) Natural language processing– facilitating interaction of humans with computers in their natural language.
2) Cyber Security– AI can be used to detect malware, anomalous network traffic; examine its code and take necessary action such as blocking and fixing infected devices.
3) Expert systems– Applications that impart reasoning to machines and advise the users. Ex: MYCIN was used to diagnose blood infections and suggest course of treatment to assist doctors.
4) Speech recognition– Some intelligent systems are capable of processing and comprehending speech in it’s context and meaning as well. Ex: biometric system for authorisation, audio recorders for spying.
5) Vision systems– These systems can comprehend visual inputs on the computer. Ex: spying aeroplane taking pictures to map a particular region, criminal identification by police.
6) Handwriting recognition– Special software that can recognise handwriting, signature matching. Useful for authentication purposes and criminal investigations.
7) Robotics– Intelligence in robots (through multiple sensors, memory and processors) can enable them to perform numerous tasks such as manufacturing cars, high precision surgery, or day-to-day tasks.
8) Gaming– Strategic games like chess, chekers, poker where an intelligent machine can think of a large no. of possible positions and select the most favourable outcome based on past knowledge (learning).
India as a growing economy and developing nation presents vast opportunities for use of AI to catapult itself towards growth.
5. Discuss the significance of events like ‘Pravasi Bharatiya Divas’ as an instrument to attract NRIs to take part in India’s growth.
This question can be tackled in two parts:
The role that NRIs can play in the growth of India (less weightage).
Significance of Events
Role played by Indian Diaspora in India’s growth –
Economic: through remittances, investment, Support of NRIs working in large international firms at top positions can help in bringing a lot of FDI and make ‘Make in India’ a success.
Soft Power: NRIs exhibit India’s culture and tradition. They are helpful in changing world image of India as a poor country to a thriving developing nation.
Political: Large diaspora of India can act as a pressure group to influence local politics in favour of India.
Great personalities of Indian origin who have made their mark in different fields of Science, Sports, economics, business etc. act as a role model for millions of Indians.
Significance of events like ‘Pravasi Bhartiya Divas’
The most important function of these events is to give a sense of belonging to these NRIs. They feel connected to their roots.
These events help to exhibit Indian progress and opportunities that are there in the country.
Prominent NRIs are acknowledged for their exemplary work in different fields.
They get a feeling that Indian Government has not forgotten about them and is always concerned about their well being.
Cultural events are organized for the NRIs so that they are attracted towards their own rich culture.
Important business and political announcements are made and they are urged to play a more important role in the politics of India.
These platforms also make it easy for the people to make donations for specific causes.
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