1. What is faulting? Discuss the landforms associated with faulting along with suitable examples.
A fault is a fracture in the earth’s crust due to tension force. It can also occur due to compression in hard and brittle rocks.
When there is tension the crust ruptures. One block is thrown upwards and the other downwards. The upthrown block is called Horst while the downthrown block is called Graben. The line along which the fault occurs is called strike. This fault is called normal fault and is most common. In case of a normal fault, new surface is generated in the form of scarp.
When there is compression, in case of hard rocks instead of folding, the faulting occurs. The block with hanging wall is thrown upwards while the one with footwall is thrown downwards. This is called a reverse fault. In case of a reverse fault there is net destruction of the surface.
When the forces are acting parallel to each other, along the line of fault the blocks move past each other without being upthrown or downthrown. This is called lateral fault.
The landforms formed due to faulting of land are block mountains, rift valleys, step mountains, hinge faults, scissors fault, Plateaus etc.
Block mountains:Block Mountains are smooth sloped, massive mountain structures. They have emerged from the faults on the Earth’s surface. Fault-block mountains are formed by the movement of large crustal blocks when forces in the Earth’s crust pull it apart. Some parts of the Earth are pushed upward and others collapse down.
Rift Valleys: A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault. A rift valley is formed on a divergent plate boundary, a crustal extension, a spreading apart of the surface, which is subsequently further deepened by the forces of erosion.
Step mountains: When non uniform forces act, the mountains are formed step wise. I.e. the height of next block is less than the first one. Many step mountain chains are found in Western Ghats.
Plateaus: They are uplifted landmasses formed due to warping of land. They are high landmasses with flat top.
(Note: Diagrams are the most important aspect of Geography answers. It’s not a written rule but one – third marks are given for diagrams. So even if you write less, try to incorporate diagrams and maps where ever you can. That will fetch you very good marks.)
2. How do V shape valleys form? Explain with the help of diagrams and examples.
(a) Channelized flow starts on a rock surface.
(b) The rock is resistant and strong enough to support a vertical slope.
(c) River incision (down cutting) is rapid and at a constant rate.
(d) The valley sides are subject to slow weathering at a constant rate.
(e) The weathering detaches material from the valley side that falls into the river below.
(f) The river is able to remove all the weathered material.
Explanation of the simulation:
(a) The River is shown in blue and the rock in green.
(b) The rock is divided up into rectangles to represent the fragments it weathers to. The angle of rest of the weathered material is given by the diagonal of the rectangle. The dimensions of the rectangles can be varied to give the angle of rest required.
(c) Each click on the manual simulation represents a constant unit of time.
(d) The incision is shown in stages.
(e) At each stage it is assumed a layer of rock of uniform width is weathered and removed by free fall. This assumption is, of course, a simplification. In reality a wedge, wider at the top, than the bottom would be weathered and removed. The inaccuracy explains the unrealistic stepped profiles. However if these are smoothed out the gradient of the valley side is accurate.
(f) The method of rectangles is used because it will allow us to see how the valley sides flatten in the next simulation.
The diagram below shows how a steep sided V-shaped valley is formed and develops:
The valley gets deeper and deeper and wider and wider with the valley sides remaining at a constant angle. This is very unlikely to occur for any length of time. Although the development of a V-shaped valley increases the efficiency of runoff and may increase the volume of the river the amount of work the river has to do at each stage increases. The amount of weathered debris that has to be removed increases as the sides lengthen. Eventually, too, the gradient of the river is going to decrease.
3. Discuss the distributional pattern of volcanoes in the world.
A volcano is an opening in Earth’s crust that allows molten rock from beneath the crust to reach the surface. This molten rock is called magma when it is beneath the surface and lava when it erupts or flows from a volcano. Along with lava, volcanoes also release gases, ash, and rock. It’s a super-hot mix that can be both incredibly destructive and creative.
Body: Volcanoes are found along destructive (subducting) plate boundaries, constructive (divergent) plate boundaries and at hot spots in the earth’s surface.
1.Circum Pacific Region: The greatest concentration of volcanoes is found in the Circum -Pacific Region also called’ ring of fire’ and includes almost 2/3rd of the world’s volcanoes includes regions from Aleutian to Kamchatka, Japan , Philippines, Indonesia .On the other side of ocean includes from Andes to central America , Mexico and Alaska . E.g. Hawaii islands
2. Atlantic Belt: Few active volcanoes mainly dormant or extinct which includes volcanoes of mid oceanic Atlantic ridge E.g. St. Helena.
3. Mediterranean region mainly associated with alpine folds e.g. Vesuvius, Etna, and Stromboli.
Some volcanoes are found in Africa along east African rift valley Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Kenya, Mt Camron in West Africa.
4. With a series of ponzi scams being unearthed recently, the need of tightening the regulatory regime has never been so pressing. Elucidate.
Ponzi/chit schemes are fraudulent investment plans in which the existing members are paid for their investment from the proceeds obtained from new members. However, the main problem with these schemes is that they fail whenever the chain of adding new members collapses.
Why there is need for tightening the regulatory regime? (Provide 4-5 points)
Currently, India does not have a unified regulatory regime to counter Ponzi, or pyramid, schemes.
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), country’s capital markets regulator, can only investigate and stop operations of schemes that raise over Rs100 crore. These are called as collective investment schemes. But this leaves out small cooperatives that operate in the hinterland and collect small sums from investors.
The looseness in implementation of state acts, including looseness at the SEBI end, has helped fraud operators to loot the people and hasn’t been able to return the money.
Inadequate level of financial literacy and awareness in the country, especially in the rural hinterlands. Therefore, stronger regulatory norms are needed to protect poor people who often save tiny sums (especially the rural poor)
Regulatory conundrum: Ponzi schemes are banned by a central law whose enforcement lies with the states. The state police staff is often ill-prepared to handle these kind of economic offences.
Currently, only 10 people at the country’s ministry of agriculture oversee rural credit cooperatives. Often this staff does not have the resources to efficiently monitor savings groups and are under pressure from politicians to ignore such scams.
Multiplicity of regulators, lack of accountability and coordination between the states and central agencies complicate matters as different investment schemes are being regulated by different regulators. There is a need to bring such schemes under one principal regulator that will oversee all cases where pooling of money is involved and investments are being made.
The menace of illegal investment schemes has grown big in recent years (Provide examples -SAHARA, SARDHA Chit Fund scam etc.) Experts say over 30,000 registered chit funds in the country are regulated by state registrars under the 1982 Chit Funds Act. Several states including Kerala, Maharashtra and Odisha have cracked down on unregistered funds. Tamil Nadu alone has over 2,000 registered chit funds companies with an annual turnover of R4,000 crore.
Attempts should be made to give powers similar to regulators such as the Competition Commission of India to recover dues and take action against deposit-taking firms illegally raising public money. While regulatory measures may offer some relief to investors, but the best way to avoid the mess is to be alert at the time of investing.
Best answer 1: Vivek
Pronzi scams are fraudulent investment operations where the operator pays returns to its investors from new capital paid to the operators by new investors, rather than from profit earned through legitimate sources. Recent data from CBI shows that frauds worth 1.2 lakh crore are being unearthed and investigated. Major reasons for this recent growth of pronzi schemes in India includes:
Lack of Universal Regulatory Regime: Lack of regulation allows the operators to use new capital in illegal ways, this continues and escapes legal purview till the bubble explodes i.e. when the business runs out of new investors.
Lack of Sanctions: The prime accuse behind most of the frauds often escapes through loopholes of the law.
Extend of SEBI: SEBI does have the power to freeze operations at, and investigate, suspected fraud at collective investment schemes that raise over 1 billion rupees and fall under its purview. Most businesses escapes the range of SEBI.
Loose State Acts: State regulatory acts are incompetent to tackle the diversity of fraud schemes like pronzi. And differences in regulation across states also helps many fraud practices.
Irresponsibility of Political Class:
Political Lobbying: More than 2.3 lakh people are employed in pyramid and pronzi schemes. This allows politicians to lobby against strict regulations citing economic and job losses.
Lack of Awareness among People:
In most cases theses frauds follows a methodology of crowd funding, targeting middle class who are more attracted towards easy returns.
Thus it is high time for India to have a tight centralized regulation. A few directions possible in this regard includes:
Regulatory Committee to review working of all existing unregulated deposit schemes: The committee should decide whether to take up further investigation or not. It can have representations from SEBI, RBI, CBI etc.
Legislation to set up Universal Regulatory Regime: Laws to be strengthened and special courts and judicial options to speed up conviction in mass fraud cases. Penalties and punishments should be substantially high.
5. Why farmers are committing suicide in many parts of the country? What is the remedy? Analyse.
The suicide rate for farmers throughout the world is higher than for the non-farming population. In India, one farmer committed suicide every 32 minutes between 1997 and 2005.
All over the world the impact of an industrial approach to boosting crop yields has stripped many small farmers of their self-sufficiency and thrown them into despair.
While the prices of crops have been pushed down – often even below the cost of production – the prices of inputs such as seed, fertilizers and pesticides have gone up.
With limited resources, farmers depend on borrowed money to purchase seeds and other inputs and to farm their land. A drop in their farm income could quickly lead to farmers owing more than they own.
Why farmers are committing suicide in many parts of the country?
Bifurcate points under different broad headings:
Financial Stress: constant financial pressure related to the “Farm Crisis” and ongoing drought and flood which add to the economic problems. Farmers are forced to borrow money at high interests to buy vital inputs (seeds, machines, fertilizers). This leads to a vicious cycle. High indebtedness and exorbitant interest rates.
Loss of independence and control: many of the issues are not within the farmer’s control – disease, weather, government policy, real estate mafia but the debts are personal
Unexpected health expense or the marriage of a daughter are perilous to the livelihood of these farmers
Sense of Loss: repeated sense of hopelessness, loss of crops, loss of land, loss of income, loss of community, loss of family farm, loss of a way of life
Geographical remoteness and the potential for social isolation
Untreated Mental Illness: Lack of access to mental health services in rural areas and the stigma attached to treatment
Depression arising from exposure to agricultural chemicals/pesticides may increase the risk for mood disorders and ultimately suicide
Natural causes: Monsoon failures, consequent droughts or floods
15 years of economic reforms have given farmers access to expensive and promising biotechnology. However, these reforms have not led to crop insurance, land irrigation, or enough bank loans.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Beema Yojna, which provides crop insurance.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana – vision of extending the coverage of irrigation ‘Har Khet ko pani’ and improving water use efficiency ‘More crop per drop’
Direct agricultural loan to stressed farmers under Kisan Credit Card.
Multiple crops: Cultivation of multi crops such as coconut, turmeric, pine apple, banana, apple, papaya, ginger will yield profitable results to the farmers.
Special agricultural zone: Just like industrial zone, there is an urgent need to establish special agricultural zones, where only farming and agriculture related activity should be allowed.
Educate the farmers: Many farmers in India are not aware of crop rotation. Though education in urban areas has improved a lot, the government has ignored the same in rural areas in general and in agriculture sector in particular. This is the reason why farmers are not adequately aware of the various schemes provided by the government.
Clubbing of small fields/Cooperative farming may help: Several farmers who own small piece of land can join together and combine all small fields into one large chunk. This may help in variety of ways.
Alternate source of income for farmers: Small farmers should be encouraged to develop alternative sources of income and the govermment should take up the responsibility for providing training to the rarmers to acquire new skills.
In drought affected areas, the government should start alternative employment generation programs to reduce the dependence on agriculture as the sole source of income. Such programs should be standardized.
Encourage allied sectors like seeds, pest management, machinery, etc.
Encourage food processing industry to get actively involved with farming communities.
Encourage startups which focuses on agriculture and farmer welfare.
Improve the efficiency of institutions like ICRISAT, ICAR.
Take inputs from ISRO to get a greater understanding of soil patterns, grown water levels, cropping patterns, etc.
Best answer: Vivek
Major causes of farmer suicides in India:
1.Indebtedness: Recent study by National Crime Records Bureau shows 80% of farmers who suicided in 2015 taken loans from banks or registered micro-finance institutions. Inflexibility of banking rules and social pressure from non-finance institutions are a major reasons.
2.Low Income: Plus lack of secondary source of income.
3.Crop Failures: Over dependence on monsoon and lack of irrigation facilities.
4.Drought: Also relates to lack of irrigation facilities. Drought seasons recorded higher rate in farmer suicides.
5. Personal Issues such as illness, inability to meet celebration expenses for daughter’s marriage etc.
6.Lack of Value Added Services: Like banking, insurance etc.
7.Exploitation: Many cases farmers are exploited by middle men paying lesser than market value for farm products.
8.New Economic Policy: Inability of Indian agriculture to compete in world competitors along with reduction in Government support and subsidies. Benefits of NEP benefits the farmers and nation as a whole on the other hand. Eg: Import of Palm oil from ASEAN countries hurt coconut farmers in Kerala.
9.Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Bt Cotton – seeds cost twice which leads to demand larger loans. As it produces better yield also, the blame is debatable.
10.Suicide Idea: Social attitude towards suicide – Suicide tendency in South India twice that of it in north.
Recent Government initiatives addressing farmer suicides:
1.Vision to double farmer’s income by 2022
2.70% Cut in Monsanto’s Royalties: Monsanto sells Bt Cotton seeds in India. Helps in reduces seed cost + initiatives to develop GM crops within country.
3.Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana: The main focus of PMKSY will be (i) Micro-irrigation projects (“Har Khet Ko Pani”) and (ii) end-to-end irrigation solutions. The scheme will also provide Rs 200 crore earmarked as Agri-Tech Infrastructure Fund (ATIF) – the corpus required to promote the National Agricultural Market (NAM) – which will give farmers easy access to the markets for sale of their produce.
4.Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bhima Yojana
5.Relief to farmers in Input Subsidy
6.Soil Health Card
1.Bring the farmers into formal financial sector: Jan Dhan Yojana should extended and make sure every farmers make uses the benefits of the scheme.
2.Legislation and develop National Agricultural Market throughout the country.
3.Amendment of banking rules in impart flexibility and sensitivity towards farmers demands.
4. Reduce over dependence of population on agriculture.
5.Promote using high yield seeds and modern facilities
6.Develop Agricultural Universities to promote research in the sector incorporating local needs and requirements.
7.Promote innovative business models like reliance fresh so that farmers get timely payment and security.
8.Develop decentralized agro-processing industries and markets in rural India
9.Support Organic farming: Product Certification and subsidy initial requirement
10.Policies to capture Agro export markets
The problems and concerns of agriculture sector are not unique, but existing for a long period. Proper planning and committed implementation can ensure reducing farmer grievances and complete eradication of farmer suicides.