1. Development hasn’t remained the mandate of the Government only as private and non profit entities are actively participating in various development projects. However, state intervention in this area is imperative to ensure inclusivity and sustainability. Comment.
Developmental goals of the country can be achieved effectively and efficiently if all the stakeholders take active part in planning as well as the execution of the development projects. Which includes the government, the corporates, the NGOs, civil society etc.
The state intervention becomes imperative for the following reasons.
Social justice: if only the corporates and other entities are entrusted with the developmental work, then chances are there that benefits of development will be cornered off by the well-off of the society, e.g., in mineral rich areas the benefits and royalties are enjoyed by the capitalists, while the tribal are further impoverished.
Inclusion: by guiding and channelizing the positive energies the government can create inclusive environment for the overall development of the under-privileged groups, e.g. through the Corporate social responsibility the government can provide impetus for the development of the women, Dalits, STs, minorities etc.
Regulation: in the absence of governments intervention, there will be as many rules as, as many players, and unregulated development projects will only work for the few, and even against the larger societal interests.
Regional imbalances: government has to provide special measure and benefits for balanced growth, otherwise all the developmental projects will be in urban areas with high demand.
Law and order situation: in the absence of government intervention and equitable distribution, the social conditions and alienation will cause law and order problems, which is detrimental for the country as whole.
Arguments against State Intervention:
Unnecessary delay: Certain projects suffer due to cost and time element that is caused due to excessive interference by Govt.
2.harassment and Bureaucratic hurdles and red tapeism and corruption will creep into the process, deterring even genuine people and organizations from taking up developmental work
Write a brief conclusion.
Best answer: Kaur
With the liberalisation of the economy in 1991, government’s role in development projects is shrinking as the role of private sector and non profit organisations(NGOs) increases. However this doesn’t mean state intervention is not needed in these projects, rather the nature of this intervention has changed :
It is needed to ensure that the development is development for all. There should be no discrimination in jobs and that development should not be concentrated in few areas or in a section of society. Eg:
The recently amended Maternity Benefits Act to ensure the rights of pregnant women.
Government interventions like Stand Up India ensure that credit for starting up is available to the Scheduled Castes, women etc.
In case investment in a sector is weak, government intervenes so that it picks up and development is not lopsided. It is trying to incentivise investment in textiles so that large number of jobs are created and economy’s reliance on services sector is balanced.
The government also needs to ensure that development is sustainable – economically and environmentally.
Government intervenes to ensure that there are no bubbles forming in the economy – high growth followed by a steep decline. Case in point, RBI has put limits on short term Foreign Portfolio Investment since large outflows of short term investment can fluctuate exchange rate.
Various environmental regulation have been framed for the corporates so that they are not harming the environment in pursuit of development and profitability. Companies have to comply with pollution norms etc.
Thus even in the era of privatisation, government intervention is required to give an orientation to the development of the economy.
2. The recent steps taken to streamline the NGOs in India was a must keeping in mind the unregulated mushrooming growth of the NGOs. Critically comment.
Write a brief introduction.
NGOs play an important role under our democratic set-up in the following ways:
Spread awareness among people about their rights and entitlements.
Sensitize govt about what people want.
Provide developmental activities in far flung areas which are otherwise neglected by the govt.
Why should the government regulate the NGOs:
The foreign funding of NGOs can be used to influence public policy. It can manipulate the public perception against the govt.
Certain NGOs are promoting religious conversions in the garb of educating the people.
Since the NGOs enjoy tax benefits and even financial support from the govt, some NGOs were found to be laundering black money,and working as tax evasion centres for some people.
Streamlining is necessary to:
Ease the registration and working of genuine social minded NGO’s.
To make sure that the foreign funding is used only for the developmental works and is not used to create sense of anti-government.
Tax-breaks and sops are given to only genuine NGOs and that NGO do noy become centres of tax evasion.
The rights of the people getting benefits of the NGOs are not violated, namely, religious freedom, physical safety etc.
3.Women’s hidden agency is given direction and constructive outlet through SHGs. Elucidate.
Women empowerment is a global issue. The SHG Movement worldwide aimed at systematically empowering marginalized grass root level women by way of conscientization, income generation and capacity building. In the words of Gandhiji “One step for women ten steps for nation.”
The economic empowerment requires transferred of skills of management and control of the economic activities, which enable them to feel confident and being involved in the decision making process. In real sense, empowerment would be attained when women are actively involved in the larger struggle for social change.
In this empowerment process, SHGs (Self-Help Groups) help the women to empower economically. A SHG is a small economically homogeneous affinity group of the rural poor who have volunteered to organize themselves into a group for eradication of poverty of the members. The members of the group were coming together to save a small amount regularly, which are deposited in a common fund to meet members emergency needs and to provide collateral free loans decided by the group. SHGs have been recognized as a useful tool to help the poor and work as an alternative mechanism to meet the urgent credit needs of poor through thrift. SHG is a media for development of savings habit among the women. It enhances the equality of women, as participants, decision makers and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic, social and cultural spheres of life. SHGs work as a two way process in which women empowers and get empowered. It works for the improvement of their status, particularly in respect of education,health and economic opportunity. All these are enhance their decision making capacity in vital areas.
In a nutshell following benefits can be seen:
they could develop their skills and abilities in various productive activities.
There is an increase in their income, savings and consumption.
Increased self-reliance and self confidence have improved the ability of women to mobilize various public services for their benefit.
They have become bold and can speak freely in front of a big crowd.
They can carry out any type of official work without any fear.
The social horizons of the members have also widened. They have made many friends and feel that now they are more popular and socially active.
The illiterate and semi-literate women have got a sense of satisfaction and wish fulfillment. Now they have become productive and the important members of the family.
They got high self esteem which enhances their capacity to work.
With improvements in women’s economic opportunities and their ability to take collective action, there has been a significant decline in gender based problems such as domestic violence, dowry, polygamy etc. Interestingly, some of them are motivating other women to form SHGs so that they also can reap the benefits.
Thus the SHGs have achieved success in bringing women to the mainstream of decision making.
4. The emphasis on strengthening the naval infrastructure stems from India’s strategic interests in the Indian Ocean realm. Discuss.
5. What is Green Corridor? Discuss its significance.
(Straight Forward question. Just Mention your points as demanded by the question)
In Introduction, explain what is Green Corridor?
The green energy corridor is grid connected network for the transmission of renewable energy produced from various renewable energy projects. The project was envisaged by Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) in its innovative report titled ‘Green Energy Corridors’. It was proposed as a dedicated transmission network for renewable energy across different renewable energy potential states.
What is the need of Green Corridor?
India’s hunger for energy is far from being satisfied. The economy is growing and the population is expanding — and both these factors are contributing towards an increase in electricity demand. At the same time around one quarter of the 1.2 billion-strong population has no access to power at all. As a result the country is working tirelessly to expand its power stations and increase the renewable energy proportion. However, all the favourable locations for renewable energy production are a long way from the economic centres. Furthermore, they are concentrated in just a few regions. For this reason, the Indian government is now building “green energy corridors” to feed sustainably-generated power into the national grid and transport it to wherever it is needed most urgently.
Help in reducing the energy import bill.
India’s INDC commitment
new and green power plants in the transmission network is a critical prerequisite for ensuring an environmentally more sustainable energy supply in India.
Help in strengthening the market for green energy in India.