1. In the age of social media and information explosion, what role can family play in inculcating values in children? Explain with examples.
The age of social media has seen an information overload in the public domain. Often unverifiable, fake, and misleading, such information has the potential to mislead impressionable young minds.
The role of the family in such situations becomes critical as:
Families as closest observers can provide immediate feedback and help in course correction (UK govt asking parents to monitor their children). Pointing out that values like greed are bad, and demonstrating counter behaviour are needed.
Positive reinforcers: The family should encourage any good behavior displayed by children. This ensures repeated display, and often ends up becoming a practice. For eg: commending a child for helping someone, teaches him the importance the empathy and compassion.
Children today are exposed to many famous celebrities that often display, and get away with behaviour, that they are told is wrong. (Celebrities, movie stars, etc). This creates dissonance in children, and can lead to ethical dilemma. The family can help resolve this.
Increasing communal polarization, the phenomena of post truth, fake news, and propaganda, fear of radicalization of children. (lone wolf jihadi inspired attacks in Europe and children joining the Caliphate). The family can help children understand an increasingly diverse and dynamic world.
Cyber Bullying, trolling, etc are negative spillovers of a free internet. The family can help discourage such tendencies in children.
Respect for animals: If the families have a pet, the child will develop love and affection for the animals, it will appreciate more that the earth belongs to animals too as much as it belongs to humans.
Respect for women: when violence against women is so common on internet and pornography, family can teach the child to respect women, to consider women as equals and not ass inferiors to men.
Scientific temperament: today when blind beliefs and superstitions are propagated as science, family can develop scientific temperament in the children by encouraging them to seek truth based on facts and not on face value of information.
Family is the first point of contact between the child and the outside world. As such anything that is taught and encouraged in the family will become a habit for the child. In today’s busy world where time spent with the family is reducing, the role of family becomes critical as facilitator, regulator and guide.
2. Means are as important as ends in ethics. Do you agree? Elucidate.
Ethics refers to the collective set of moral principles and framework that governs an individual and a society. The question of which one is more important end or means has been an age old dilemma. While as per Deontological theory means matter more than end, consequentialism believes in ethical end without giving much attention to means.
Means are as important as ends:
This can be explained by following examples-
1) Gandhiji chose path of non-violence for India’s independence. Its because of the ethical means that today the society in order to express resentment does peaceful protests rather than getting violent. Thus chosing a ethical path always
2) Unethical means results into breakdown of moral conscience. One may adopt unethical means to feed his family but it will result into unhappiness in the long term as the person himself wont be able to stay happy, his conscience will keep reminding him hi guilt.
3) One can cheat and pass in exam recently seen in case of Bihar board exam. But such path only puts the students’ future at risk as they won’t be able to serve the society well, also causing harm to the society.
4) Choosing ethical means has a long lasting effect. One may pass an exam by cheating but to succeed in long run she must do hard work.
Thus, one cannot achieve moral victory through immoral means
However, as per situational ethics, at times, means have to be adopted thoughtfully and not always ethically so as to achieve an ethical end. This can be understood by following examples:
1) A person is being attacked by a dacoit. Here the person can adopt an unethical means of attacking the dacoit while defending himself as there is risk to his life.
2) Going by the Robinhood approach a civil servant may disclose corrupt activities taking place in her organization to the media. But it will only result into anarchy.
From the above it can be inferred that choosing ethical means is important. However in certain situation one may be forced to choose end over means.
3. “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” Comment on this famous quote by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.
“Matha Pitha Guru Deivam”
“Mother Father Teacher God”. The meaning of this adage is the greatest truth, and is the order in which one should offer reverence.
A child’s mind is like a clay and parents along with teachers are the potters who can give the shape in a way only they want.
A child imbibes the values of everyone and tries to emulate them in real life. If father has a virtuous character and is optimistic the child will bear the same ideals.
Father’s dedication to hard work over sycophancy at office, payment of taxes on time, not jumping the queue to pay electric bills or bribing the temple chief for easy entry are some of the examples by which the male member precariously teaches important civic values to his child.
Mahatama Gandhi shows what values a father an hold.
Mother is in absolute terms a source of pure love. She provides compassion and an emotional outlook to child.
Mother- teaches value of truth and hardwork – by supporting his child to repeat a year instead of cheating and passing an examination. Further when the child sees her mother juggling between work and home, it builds in him the value of hard work over the easy way out. Easy and simple living (no extravagance) builds in him the value of need over greed.
Mother Teresa is the finest example.
Teacher is a guiding light. The shaping of knowledge of society is done by the teacher.
Teacher, By teaching civic values, teaching history and civics which contains the nobles and ideals of our freedom fighters, also the fundamental duties. The way the government functions and inevitability of occasional lapses builds values of trust and good faith towards the government and governance
Dr. S Radhakrishnan stands as an epitome.
Hence, a conglomeration of these three can give the society a fine individual if provided a right path.
4. India’s IT sector is facing serious challenges today. Why? Do you think this sunrise industry has already seen its best? Examine.
The indian IT sector is facing major challenges today. Its growth seems to have slowed (NASSCOM projection of a 7 percent growth rate), while its share of exports, and GDP contribution too seems to be stalling.
There is now widespread skepticism surrounding the 150 billion dollar Indian IT industry that it may be headed for an early dawn. It is facing many challenges, such as:-
1)The fourth IR and the rise of automation: Machines to replace human labor, especially in important Indian exports sectors like Banking; restructuring and laying off by Indian Companies, has affected the IT industry.
2) Loss of competitiveness: The Indian IT sector is valued for its cost advantage. However, this is being eroded by rising digital functional literacy and lower wages in countries like Vietnam, Philippines etc.
3) Failure to move from BPO to KPO: The Indian IT sector hasn’t invested enough in value addition. Thus, it is not able to capture enough of the emerging specialized service market.
4) Workforce quality: The number of employable engineers and the questionable quality therein has further dampened prospects.
5) Rise of anti-globalization and protectionism: The stricter H1B visa regulations, reduction in overseas white collar jobs, etc has reduced the global market for IT.
6) Slowing Demands due to weak macroeconomic outlook. This is particularly visible in the health sector, which is undergoing overhaul in major countries such as US, UK and the EU.
Is best phase for the IT sector is over?
Though mass layoffs, annual culling’s in the IT sector, stagnant salaries, visa restrictions on movement of personnel etc. suggest that the best phase for the sector is over, it is contradicted due to the following reasons:-
1) The IT sector retains a distinct skill advantage at its price point over its global peers.
2) Moreover, Big Data, Cyber Security etc. will see more avenues for IT than the coding/BPOs/KPOs services.
3) Engaging in re-skilling and emphasizing domain expertise over recruitment (at least in the short term)
4) Huge Potential Indian Market – With rising digitalization and digital literacy, the demands of local Indian market can provide the much needed support to the IT sector.
5) Demography- India youngest nation and in 2030 there will be shortage of 50m workers which India can easily occupy with more investment in skill, vocational education, infrastructure ($1 trillion 12th FYP), schemes like stand-up, start-up, has enhanced the entrepreneurship culture.
6) Dynamism and capacity to evolve – Most giant Indian companies like Infosys, TCS and Wipro are already in the path of aligning themselves to the future challenges.
7) The traditional markets may be slowing down but the digital push in the form of cloud computing is gaining ground.
8) Various MoUs and FTAs and increase in FDI have shown that there is lot of business yet to come.
Thus, it can be concluded that even though Indian IT industry is going through a tough, challenging and transformative phase, it has every potential and opportunity to rise again and lead India’s 21st century growth story.
Q.5 There has been an impetus on streamlining political funding in India, In this light discuss the potential of electoral bonds.
Lack of transparency in political funding has been a source of constant debate amongst policy makers and citizenry in path of India’s evolvement into a mature Democracy.
Though they have been incremental reforms and changes in RoPA, 1951 over the years like setting up of electoraltrusts, revealing source of donations over a certain limit, IndrajitGupta committee report on seriously considering statefunding progress has been minimal at best. ADR report 2015 states that even till today 70% of funding to political parties is anonymous.
Electoral bonds introduced in this year’s budget seems to be a step further to address this menace,
An electoral bond is a financial instrument by which an individual/organisation can contribute to a political party.
Electoral bonds help in cleansing of electoral space via four pronged approach
a )On suggestion of EC the maximum cap of contribution is limited to 2000/-
b) Amendments in RBI act to issue electoral bonds only from designated banks.
c) Further the payments have to be in cheque/ digital mode thus limiting flow of unaccounted cash into the system and only into designated party accounts and time bounds thus both preventing harassment of individual by ensuring anonymity and making accounts scrutinisable by agencies.
d) Changes in ITact1961, to make parties file returns every year.
These in a nutshell will ensure transparency by tracing source of funding), another step towards digitization,
Also a positive spin off it could be a way to legalise corporate lobbying in India as in advanced economies like USA,UK etc.
While doubts still persist on its implementation and many political activists calling it an opaque and EC terming it as retrograde steps due to many lacunae in its framing a lot depends on how the scheme is implemented and made successful as on political will and active citizen participation.
Political Funding in India began in 1920s hen Mahatma Gnadhi decided to raise money for India’s Freedom Struggle. Political Funding comprises of individual, corporate and foreign donations and is primarily plagued by three problems:-
Undocumented cash flowing into reserves of political parties, leading to greater nexus between black money and political parties.
Lack of transparency in political contributions since parties show majority of contributions as less than Rs. 20,000, which can be given in cash.
There is no provision of independent audit of Political Parties, making it impossible to trace any discrepancies.
Electoral Bonds were notified in the Finance Bill, 2017, and will be issued by a notified bank for specified denominations.
It promotes digital/cheque payment of amount more than Rs. 2,000, thus, arresting undocumented cash flow.
Funds will now flow through formal financial system and thus formalizes the donations.
It will facilitate flow of accounted money into the system rather than unaccounted money flowing into dubious systems.
ITR is still to be filed by Political Parties. Therefore, it will account for all the money flow, making it traceable.
Since the bonds revoke the 7.5% limit (of the average three year profits) for companies, the accountability would increase as corporate donations are governed by a number of factors as compared to individual ones.
1. The limit of Rs. 2000 is still likely to be used to grant haven to unaccounted money.
Lack of transparency has been increased as the Board of Directors is not obliged to disclose funding of Political Parties now.
It removes cap of 7.5% of average profit of the last three years, which could be donated, making it easier for large corporate houses to lobby.
It could channel laundering of dirty money.
In addition to above, despite CIC orders, Political Parties are still immune to RTI. Also, the question of foreign funding is not addressed by the electoral bonds.
The nuances of notifying Electoral Bonds are still being worked out. It can be a potential tool to curb the nexus between black money and politics. A better solution might have been a National Electoral Fund to disburse funds to Political Parties in proportion to votes secured while maintaining secrecy of donors.