1. South Indian paintings are known for their attention on details. Do you agree? Substantiate with the help of suitable examples.
South Indian paintings sometimes referred as Deccani style of painting stands distinct from the North Indian paintings especially during medieval era in the manner it focused on details. This can be substantiated based on following examples.
Mysore painting: These paintings are known for their elegance, muted colours and attention to detail. The themes for most of these paintings are Hindu Gods and Goddesses and scenes from Hindu mythology.
Tanjore paintings: A style of painting characterised by bold drawing, techniques of shading and the use of pure and brilliant colours flourished at Tanjore in South India during the late 18th and 19th centuries. These paintings like Mysore painting also focused on detailing. The style is decorative and is marked by the use of bright colours and ornamental details.
Hyderabad: A miniature showing a princess in the company of maids is a typical example of the Hyderabad school of painting. Distinctive features of the Deccani paintings of the 18th and 19th centuries are observed in the treatment of the ethnic types, costumes, jewellery, flora, fauna, landscape and colours.
Karnataka Painting: dates back to pre-historic era of 2000-1000 BC. These showed depictions of animals, human figures, etc. painted under projected rocks.
Hoysala paintings: available in the painted palm leaf manuscripts. This painting was prevalent in Karnataka region.
Kerala mural paintings: are the frescos depicting mythology and legends dislplayed on ancient temples, churches and palaces in Kerala. These paintings depicted themes based on gods and godesses in very detailed manner.
From the above examples it can be concluded that almost all of the SOuth Indian paintings gave enough attention on detailing apart from using vivid and distinct colors so as to make these paintings very attractive.
Sufi music is a genre based on Sufism and sometimes inspired by Sufi poets. This genre is generally meant as an expression of devotion to God, but it also can be a way to enhance the connection between the physical and spiritual aspects of the listener or performer in its original sense, this is a traditional and devotional form associated with Islamic mystics known as Sufis. The roots can largely be found in Persia, parts of the Arabic world, Pakistan and India. The qawwali and kaafi are the most popular styles, and are associated with poets such as Hafez, Rumi, Amir Khusro, Baba Bulleh Shah, Hazrat Shah Hussein and Khwaja Ghulam Farid.
Sufi music follows the four stages of Sufism: shariat (path), tareeqat (observance), haqeeqat (truth) and marfat (union).
One of the better known sub-genres of Sufi music is called qawwali, which has its roots in India and Pakistan, made famous by Aamir Khusro.Traditionally; this style consists of four distinct sections: hamd, naat, and manqabat, which are all devotional songs, and ghazals, which are usually expressions of the longing to be close to the divine. The popularity of qawwali is due in part to its aesthetic appeal.
Another popular sub-genre is known as kafi. This style is considered classical, and is generally culled from the poetic verses of well-known writers. Though kafi is similar to qawwali in the fervor of its delivery, the two forms differ in execution. While qawwali may be made up of a larger ensemble, kafi music usually consists of a few percussion instruments, a keyboard, and a single vocalist.
Although Sufi music is sometimes performed in public for the enjoyment of those who pass by, it is often reserved for important ceremonies. One of the better known of these ceremonies is called Sama, which is frequently associated with the whirling dervish, or Mevlevi, order. Singing and music are an important component of the Sama ceremony, but it may also include music made with flutes, tambourines, and bells.
Modern day Sufism is most popularly and widely known for its poetry and its music with new sub genres like Sufi rock connecting itself intricately to the young generation thus the genre stands relevant even today due to adaptation and metamorphosis to changing times and tastes.
3. Devotion and art forms have maintained a beautiful synthesis in India. Elucidate.
Madhubani Painting: Also known as Godhna, Maithaili and Chaitra figure painting,deal with the Hindu deities, nature and social events of the time.
Kalamkari Painting: This style of painting evolved in the Mughal rule and was patronized by the Golconda Sultanate. The subject of these paintings are narratives from Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas.
Patachitra Painting: Paata Paintings or patachitra, is a devotional art form worshipping Lord Jagannath, originating from indian state of Orissa. The themes are usually religious, mythological, and folklore. Needless to say, most of the motifs are centred around tales from the Krishna Leela and Lord Jagannath.
Warli Art: The central motive of each painting is a square in which resides the Goddess of fertility, Palaghata.
The Chaitya Hall (place of worship), the Vihara (monastery) and the Stupa (hemispherical mound for worship/ memory) – exemplified by the extraordinary caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental SanchiStupa.
Bharatanatyam ,Traditionally performed by mandir (Hindu temple) Devadasis. Many of the ancient sculptures in Hindu temples are based on Bharatanatyam dance postures karanas.
Kathakali ,(katha for story, kali for performance or play) is a form of dance-drama, It is a spectacular combination of drama, dance, music and ritual. Characters with vividly painted faces and elaborate costumes re-enact stories from Mahabharata and Ramayana.
Mohiniaattam , a traditional dance from the South Indian state of Kerala. Mohini is an Apsaras in the Hindu mythology and aattam in Malayalam means dance. So Mohiniaattam essentially means “dance of the enchantress”. The theme of Mohiniaattam is love and devotion to god. The costume worn by the dancers are typically white coloured kasavu saree with golden borders.
The Kathak , dance form arose from the Vaishnava devotees dancing to the episodes from Krishna‘s life.
The Sattriya, dance is believed to be a creation of the great Vaishnavite (bhakti) guru.
4. A biased and insensitive media is the biggest threat to democracy. Do you agree? Substantiate.
Media has been called as fourth pillar of democracy. It is an institution which helps to preserve the other institutions of democracy and try to keep all institutions accountable but biased and insensitivity of media is turning it as a big threat to democracy.
Yellow journalism: Catchy news without proper research to gain more viewers and readers.
Paid news: In order to gain more revenue for channels, publishing news which is advantageous to particular individual or group.
Politically biased: Being mouth piece of particular ideology or political party and publishing news only about them.
Biased news: One sided story publishing without researching the issues properly.
Media trial: Conducting media trial with now proper specialization and victimizing innocents for their welfare.
National security: For TRP, putting national security to risk and causing threat to soldiers’ lives. Ex: NDTV during Kargil and Pathonkot attack.
Private interests: Media houses run news and stories keeping their interests in mind.
Regulatory body: More powers to PCI and independent regulatory body.
Punishment: Harsher punishment for media houses running biased and insensitive shows.
Standard operation procedure: A standard framework to be created and used so that over reach can be measured.
Media is the link between the rulers and ruled. They are the ones responsible to take news across breaking all barriers but due to increased commercialization, they are now being responsible for large scale violence, compromising national security etc. It is high time they are regulated before anything big occurs.
5. Safety standards and associated institutional framework in the railways need immediate attention. Comment.
There is an increase in train accidents in the country leading to loss of life and property because of which there is an urgent need to review the safety standards and associated institutional framework in railways in order to stop such incidents in future.
Maintenance: There is lack in proper and timely maintenance in both train and tracks.
Old and outdated: Usage of old and out dated technology to maintain the world’s largest passenger carrier.
Bottlenecks: Track repairs and blind spot rectification.
Vacancy: Huge vacancy leading to lack of efficiency and service.
Unmanned tracks: Due to which damages to tracks leading to accidents.
Train fare: Independent committee to decide on fares.
Grievance: Separate redressal mechanism.
Separation: Of passengers and goods services into different departments and privatization if needed.
Training institutes: For locomotive pilots and engineers.
Research: Separate research body for Railways.
Use of old and outdated machines should be foregone and new technologies should be introduced like anti-collision technology, Talgo trains, Tri-Netra system, derailment coaches among others. Bibek Debroy and Anil kakodkar committee recommendations should be implemented at the earliest to improve the railway sector as a whole.