1. India has the disadvantage of being situated in close proximity to what is being described as the epicentre of global terrorism. In the light of this statement, examine the challenges to India’sinternal security.
India’s geographical location is the main disadvantage it can have among others especially being close to the “cradle of terrorism” is posing several problems to its dream of super power status. It is also affecting the internal security apparatus.
Challenges to our internal security:
Terrorism: Terrorist attacks on important centers like Delhi, Mumbai, Coimbatore, Bangalore etc.
Radicalization: Spreading doctored news and videos to radicalize youth minds.
Extortion: Seeking protection money and underworld activities. Ex: D company.
Organized crime: Human trafficking, Smuggling etc.
Kashmir Unrest: Kashmir unrest leading to damaging the economy of state.
Fake Indian Currency: Smuggling fake Indian currency to weaken economy.
Communal riots: Destroying secular fabric of country Ex: Godhra riots.
Drugs Smuggling: Destroying youth’s future by making them addicted to drugs.
Local militancy: Creating local militant organization like SIMI, IM etc.
Refugees: Inflow of refugees leads to conflict with localities and start of violence.
India has border with golden crescent and golden triangle, the location cannot be altered but the security challenges can be prevented by using technology and strengthening the security forces. Inclusive development should be the focus as it will help solve many problems.
2. A nation with India’s maritime assets, challenges and opportunities urgently needs to conceive a National Maritime Strategy, which will create synergies and draw maximum advantage from the maritime sector. Elucidate.
Recent development in Indian Ocean region had given a call for need in national maritime strategy and naval force has lived up to its expectations with new National Maritime strategy for ensuring secure seas.
Need for National Maritime strategy:
Oil and gas installations: We have huge installations for our energy needs and securing them is very important.
Ports, harbors, dockyards: Vital installations for maritime trade.
Fishing: Largest population is dependent on fishing and we are leading exporter of sea products.
Robbery and piracy: Protecting movement of commercial ships from piracy and robbery in ocean.
Rescue: Rescue operations of Indian citizens stranded abroad or on seas.
Terrorism: preventing infiltration of terrorists and militants through open borders.
Marine explorations: Hydrocarbon explorations for increasing demands.
Mineral mining: Sea bed mining for energy security and precious metals.
Port led development: Projects like Sagarmala, revival of old spice route to enhance port led development.
Any country aspiring to be a super power should control its waters. The reason British could conquer entire world was because of its Maritime powers. So if India wants to be a super power it should develop a Maritime strategy to defend its open borders and protect its interests.
3) The sheer interconnectedness of the system gives rise to legitimate concerns regarding the nature and structure of the systems of response, particularly with regard the purported fragmentation of the India’s federal arrangements. Examine in light of India’s federal set up and its internal security preparedness.
India follows a federal setup when it comes to internal security. With Law and order under State’s jurisdiction and national and external security coming under centre’s jurisdiction. Under Article 355 of the Indian constitution, the ultimate responsibility for security lies with the centre.
Dependence of States on central forces.
Poor capability of States due to vacancies in police, police reforms suggested by Supreme court in Prakash Singh case not yet implemented, lack of modernization etc.
Lack of coordination between central and state forces due to political differences.
Centralised intelligence gathering machinery is missing- NATGRID is yet to become a full-fledged database.
Non-involvement of state in tackling security challenges- AFSPA
Lack of coordination among states- Naxalites
Politicisation of matters
Thus, whether it is in the handling of the Mumbai attacks, or in the case of disturbances in Jammu and Kashmir, or the blockade of Manipur by the NSCN (IM) or the lack of coordination between the central paramilitary forces and the state police in naxal areas, the federal nature of the Indian polity has resulted into tensions.
Co-ordination mechanisms for Intergovernmental relations across all three tiers of government agencies is needed.
Rethinking the notion of law and order, and public order.
Rearranging centre-state relations.
Strengthening the institutional mechanisms such as creation of new institutions such as a National Counterterrorism Centre and reform of existing ones such as the Indian Police Service.
Given the challenges to national security ranging from the proxy-war in Jammu and Kashmir, left-wing extremism, insurgencies in the North-East, terrorism by new groups like the Indian Mujahideen and counter-radical organizations, the political parties at the Centre and in States rise above their political differences to cooperate with each other in tackling these serious challenges. A national security doctrine is the need of the hour.
Best answer: No answer
4) Why police reforms require immediate attention in India? Discuss. Give a brief account of the factors that have necessitated these reforms.
The present Indian police system is largely a legacy of the British rule in India since it is based on the Police Act of 1861.
Need for police reforms:
Crime now is not only widespread and violent but also sophisticated with the abundant use of technology. Fallout is raising fear in a community, especially among elders, women and children.
With the phenomenal expansion of the geographic area to be policed and the mind-boggling increase in the number of lives to be guarded, the Indian police, more than in many western democracies, have been stretched and outnumbered. There are only about 140 policemen per 100,000 people, a very poor ratio when compared to other modern democracies.
Another criticism against the police is of their preoccupation with the problems of the political party in power and those of the rich and famous..
The phenomenal rise in private security agencies also accounts for the growing lack of trust in the state police. This is a shameful but real state of affairs in most of India.
The security of the society and the welfare of the people is dependent on the efficiency of the police.
To eliminate the undue political interference this led to the loss of autonomy of police. police today are victims of politicization as well as criminalization.
To instill the confidence of the people in the institution of police by making police more people friendly.
To prevent the highhandedness of police in the form of extra-judicial killings. Recently NHRC noted that 206 cases of encounters occurred in the last 12 months.
To continue security and growth with our high economic growth, the maintenance of law and order plays a vital role.
Problems with existing Policing system
The police do not have functional responsibility while remaining under the supervision of the political executive.
Political control of police by the political executive is not conditioned and is not kept within its legitimate bounds.
Internal management systems are not fair and transparent.
Policing efficiencies have decreased in terms of their core functions.
Public complaints are not addressed properly and police accountability is comparatively less.
The 22 September, 2006 verdict of the Supreme Court in the Prakash Singh vs. Union of India case was the landmark in the fight for police reforms in India. In its directions, the court had pulled together recommendations generated since 1979 by various committees (Julio Riberio, Soli Sorabjee, 1ST NPC and 2ND NPC.)They make up a scheme, which, if implemented holistically, will cure common problems that perpetuate poor police performance and unaccountable law enforcement. Justice Thomas committee, which was set up to monitor the implementation of the Court’s directions, expressed a sense of “dismay” over the indifference to judicial directions.
The recent TP Senkumar case also must serve as a much needed wakeup call or else it will be left to judiciary to implement it by force. The nation can no longer afford a politician’s police and it’s time for people’s police.
5) Critically examine the instrumentality of demonetisation as a tool to curb black money.
Demonetization refers to the decision of RBI/Government to recall the status of a currency note to be used as a legal tender. Usually all the currencies issued by RBI can be used as a legal tender as the value they carry is promised by RBI and once the value has been demonetized/recalled/revoked, the currency note cannot be used. Globally the central banks follow a practice wherein older currency notes are recalled and new currency notes with enhanced security features are issued so as to overcome the menace of counterfeit currency.
Why demonetization was needed?
The cash to GDP ratio in India is around 14% which is much higher than that in other similarly placed economies.
The Shadow economy is expected to be around 24% of the GDP as per the World Bank report.
The intelligence reports of CBDT, FIU points towards large chunk of illegal black money being stashed in cash.
The channelization of Black Money during elections, etc. takes mainly in the form of cash.
500 and 1000 rupee denomiations forms around 86% of the total value of currency in circulation.
Pros of Demonetization
The menace of black money can be controlled to some extent
Terror financing, using black money for illegal activities etc will all take a hit
The counterfeit currencies which have an impact on the real economy, will be rooted out
The mobilization of deposits in the banks will increase, which may lead to increased credit flow and lowering of lending rates
The black money adds to the inconspicuous demand and hence the inflation to some extent will be under control
The government is also aiming to raise its revenue collection (eg- by taxing exorbitant IT rates over certain deposits, the tax collection in other forms will also increase etc)
The real estate is one of the major sources of black money generation. With this move it is expected that the property market rates may bottom out or moderate
It’s a major step by the government towards forming a cashless economy
The honest workers will be rewarded under such scenario
The elections are usually associated with black money generation and circulation, with this scheme the funding of elections through nefarious ways will be hit
It is expected that with this move the Fiscal Deficit of the government may come down
limitations of demonetization
Benami transactions, hawala transactions, p-notes and shell companies remain untouched which are the major factors of shadow economy.
Security features of new notes are “hard to break” not impossible.
Transfer of excess money to the accounts of acquaintance and to the farmers is a major loophole. As per RBI 99% of demonetized notes were deposited back to the banks.
Black money has a self perpetuating tendency and is invested in high worth investments like gold and real estate.
It is more for fake money that to black money.
Impact on informal sector of the economy, bringing it to standstill, negative impact on agriculture inputs and rural economy.
Demonetization is good economic tool as it cleans the system and promotes less cash economy but generation of black money must be attacked in its root and some ground work needs to be done. Recently passed Benami Act and Real estate Regulation act are good initiatives in this direction.