1. Radicalisation of youth has become a grave security challenge for India. The notion that only poverty, unemployment and alienation push the youth towards extremism has been busted with many affluent, educated and mainstream young getting inclined towards radical ideas. This requires a well calibrated approach to address the challenge of radicalisation. Do you agree? Substantiate.
Radicalization has become a serious concern for global world including India which host significant Minority population. Recent arrest shows it’s not just unemployed and uneducated but affluent, educated and mainstream youths are also getting inclined towards it.
Factors that make educated, affluent youths get inclined towards radical ideas:
Money: They are attracted towards quick money it offers.
Fame: Overnight fame.
Inequality: Societal inequalities and pressure to outperform others.
Preaching’s: Radical preaching everywhere and in disguise of religious sanctions.
Exotic Fantasies: Drugs, arms and ammunitions, women, power etc.
Approach to addresses radicalization challenges:
Cyber security: Upgrading the cyber security so that radicalization materials are removed and trackable from source and origin.
Monitoring: Constant cyber space monitoring since majority are drawn and recruited through internet.
Intelligence: Constant intelligence gathering on banned militant outfits’ movements and former members’ involvement in inputs.
Community members: Involvement of community elders and scholars to preach misguided youths.
Awareness: Government should create awareness about the ill-effects of the radicalization on their lives and also their immediate family members.
Former members: Involve surrendered youths who have given up arms to show the real face of radicalization and its effects.
NGO’s: should be involved in educating people at young level and take up activities to check spread of radicalization and return misguided youths to main stage.
Government should take steps to integrate minority community with main stream India and install a sense of nationalism, pride, sense of security in the community so that they feel that this country belongs to them equally and all people are their own kith and kin.
2. India has become a soft target for external state and non-state actors with repeated attacks, incursions and intrusions witnessed in the recent past. Moreover, on the domestic front also, left wing extremism and communal tension have posed serious security threats. In this scenario, don’t you think India should have a National Security Doctrine? Critically examine.
Frequent intrusions, cross border firing from Pakistan state actors, terrorist attack on Pathankot air base by non-state actors and domestic naxal problem has thrown up a challenge for India to evolve a national security doctrine to deal with these threats in future.
Need for National Security doctrine:
Cold start doctrine: By Pakistan against India.
Cross border firing: Leading to killing of many civilians and BSF men in the border.
Intrusions: By PLA in Ladakh and Uttarakhand.
Border dispute: Unsolved border disputes with neighbours leading frequent troubles. Ex: Sir Creek, Doklam, Arunachal Pradesh etc.
Terrorism: Cross border terrorist attacks. Ex: 26/11, Pathankot etc.
Militancy: In Kashmir valley by providing support to separatists.
Smuggling: Of arms, ammunitions, fake Indian currencies across borders.
Naxalism: Red corridor areas also known as left wing extremism areas possess security and development threat to country.
Separatist movement: In north eastern region and Kashmir, leading to casualties of soldiers and economy.
Local militants: Like Indian Mujahidin, PFI creating communal tensions across regions.
The above threats from state and non-state actors, external and internal threats pose grave security threat to India’s security which also affects our growth and development as super power. Government should take this issue on war footing and come up with policy to secure the country.
3. What is ‘SAMADHAN’? Why was it launched? Examine its features and suitability in the present context.
The SAMADHAN is a new strategy against Maoists launched by the Home Ministry.
S- Smart leadership In the LWE-affected areas, there is a need of leadership which, despite adversity, can keep the jawans enthusiastic and teach them only to win.
A- Aggressive strategy It is necessary to analyse incidents where security forces suffered heavy losses. Proactive approach along with aggression in thinking, operations and development such as road construction should be adopted.
M- Motivation and training Focus should be on training of security forces and providing them adequate facilities. Security forces must learn the culture and languages of the locals to earn their trust.
A- Actionable intelligence It is important to establish a good network with the locals. Surrendered LWE cadre should be used for intelligence collection.
D- Dashboard KPIs and KRAs These should be determined for the state police and the central forces to assess their preparedness as well as performance.
H- Harnessing technology Technology is a force multiplier and there was a need to use more of it such as as UAVs, high-resolution cameras, GPS tracking and satellite images.
A- Action plan for each theatre To counter LWE in different states, there is a need to fight on multiple fronts and create separate action plans for each front.
N- No access to financing Choking LWE’s financial resources is the “basic mantra” in this fight to prevent them from getting weapons, ammunition, and food.
Thus, the new strategy majorly focuses on using advanced technology including drones and smart guns that feature triggers that get activated by biometrics and on blocking financial funding to eradicate Naxalism and Maoism.
Left Wing Extremism threatens to weaken and make the roots of democracy hollow. More than 12,000 people had lost their lives in violent activities of the left-wing extremists. Out of these, 2,700 were security personnels. The anti-development strategy of left-wing extremists also targets government facilities meant for the public. We ofcourse need to work to “outthink” and and “outmanoeuvre” the LWE.
However, it must be noted that the LWE problem is not a ‘law and order’ problem alone but is also, a socio-economic problem. The cancer of LWE flourishes in poverty or backwardness. Thus, much more needs to be done. Ensuring security needs to be complemented with development and better governance in LWE- affected areas.
Broadcasting Government initiatives in LWE affected states in regional languages.
Follow-up to distribution of essential commodities and regular conduct of medical camps.
Public-private partnership models and civic society participation in imparting education and sports to tribal youth.
A holistic approach involving coordination between the Ministries of Home Affairs, Tribal Affairs and Social Justice and Empowerment can also help in tackling the root causes of slackening development in tribal areas.
The use of community radio stations and media plan for spreading awareness and to counter the false propaganda of the Maoists was discussed in the meeting.
The time has come for arresting the trend of Maoist inflicted violence by combining security and development related measures to counter the challenges posed by Naxalites. Both security and development related measures needs to be implemented aggressively.
4. The government has taken many steps to harness digital revolution to bring about socio-economic changes. However, the revolution is accompanied by multiple cyber security threats. In this scenario it becomes critical to secure the cyber ecosystem with greater caution and effect. Elucidate. Should India accept the Budapest convention? Critically examine.
India is on a cusp of digital revolution, the Government with the maxim of Maximum governance and Minimum Government has unveiled a range of e-governance initiatives under the Digital India program to increase transparency, ease of getting permits, and benefits to the beneficiary without any delay.
However the flip side is that illegal, criminal and anti-national elements have also become rampant. Further, issues relating to the militarization of cyber space have emerged. The intention of many nations has been to gain strategic advantage through the militarization of cyberspace. The use of Stuxnet malware against Iran is a case in point.
India’s infrastructure is susceptible to mainly four types of threats espionage, cybercrime (including thefts, electronic frauds etc.), attacks and full blown cyber war.
According to the National Crime Records Bureau, 9,622 incidents of cybercrime were recorded in 2014. The National Cyber Security Policy of 2013 refers to effective law-enforcement capabilities for investigation and prosecution of cybercrime
The existing international treaty called the Budapest Convention, it focuses only on cybercrime.
Though the Budapest Convention establishes procedural laws and powers for effective investigations, countries can refuse to cooperate even after ratifying the treaty.
They may also refuse assistance if the act is deemed to be a political offence or a non-offence within the country.
The Budapest Convention through its Article 32b allows for trans border access to data and thus infringes on national sovereignty is also of a major concern.
Different conceptions of human rights and privacy concerns complicate the matters further. Thus it remains more of a symbolic legislation.
India has so far shown reluctance to sign the Budapest convention citing these lapses in the treaty and has firmly pushed for a new inclusive treaty even in for a such as BRICS.
It is in this context that the need for a new treaty to prevent militarization of cyberspace arises. Improved international governance of the internet as well as issues of content regulation and freedom of speech need to be addressed by the new treaty. Since the present Budapest Convention cannot be modified by the non-EU members it would be in the best interests of everyone that all countries get together to address the issues by creating a new international treaty
5.Examine the ongoing turmoil in the Kashmir region. Does it pose a security threat to India. Also give your views and suggestions to address it.
Ongoing turmoil in the Kashmir region witnessed growth in home-grown Islamic militancy and radicalization of the Kashmiri Muslim population. Several reasons have been cited such as the absence of a political dialogue, the lack of economic opportunities, frustration due to high unemployment, excessive militarization of the public space and repeated human rights violations by the security forces. The ongoing Kashmir Valley unrest needs to be correctly understood and appreciated as a national security issue and challenge.
1) INTERNAL SECURITY- The present situation in Kashmir poses a great threat to India’s security. The militant groups are using several means to radicalize the youth as using them to create the turbulence which there by also effecting the life of the innocent people.
2) MISPERCEPTIONS -It not only effect the sole J&K but also portrays the state as a soil of communal riots and terror activities.
3) YOUTH-Most of the youth who has the potential to contribute for the Nation development are radicalized and indulged in all the illegal activities and putting their life in trouble.
4)GEOGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE-Geographically and Historically Kashmir plays an paramount role in India Federation, where India strive since ages and fought wars with neighboring countries to safe guard it.
5)DOMESTIC LIVELIHOOD- Tourism is an one of the prominent livelihood for people of Jammu and Kashmir ,but with the recent attacks on the Amaranth pilgrims transits the people desire to visit traditionally significant temples.
6) GOVERNANCE-Since most of troops are deployed and high level persistent security and ministerial surveillance is needed, So there would be negligence in other areas of interest.
WAYS AND MEANS TO ADDRESS IT
De radicalization and dialogue must go hand in hand should not wait for peace to be established as it’s a gradual process.
Communication channels such as Facebook, What’s app, are intensely used by perpetuators of violence and same should be used to eliminate the impact of the same.
Along with economic gains employment opportunities must be floated for young Kashmiri’s.
Anti-India and Pro-Pakistani image must not be accentuated by either media or political parties.
Give regional autonomy to all three regions of J&K i.e. Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Ladakh. It has to be coupled with proper dialogue with separatists.
Rather than removing Article 370; we should implement Article 370 in true letter and spirit.
Huge thrust on tourism (tourism has a big multiplier effect and will create a positive impact on local economy)
Encourage Kashmiri students, present in other States of India, to participate in important state affairs. The state CMs should set up monthly meetings with Kashmiri students and solve their issues. It will create a good image about Indian states among the Kashmiri people.