SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [6th December 2017]- Day 13
1. What is frontogenesis? How does it lead to temperate cyclones? Illustrate. Also discuss the distribution of temperate cyclones in the world.
- Define Frontogensis
- Write how Frontogensis leads o temperate cyclones formation
- Distribution of temperate cyclones in the world
What is frontogenesis?
Fronts are the typical features of midlatitudes weather (temperate region – 30° – 65° N and S). They are uncommon (unusual) in tropical and polar regions.
Front is a three dimensional boundary zone formed between two converging air masses with different physical properties (temperature, humidity, density etc.).
The two air masses don’t merge readily due to the effect of the converging atmospheric circulation, relatively low diffusion coefficient and a low thermal conductivity.
The process of formation of a front is known as Frontogenesis
Frontogenesis involves convergence of two distinct air masses. Frontolysis involves overriding of one of the air mass by another.
In northern hemisphere Frontogenesis (convergence of air masses) happens in anti-clockwise direction and in southern hemisphere, clockwise direction. This is due to Coriolis Effect.
Mid-latitude cyclones or temperate cyclones or extra-tropical cyclones occur due to frontogenesis.
How does it lead to temperate cyclones?
Influence of frontogenesis on temperate cyclones:
- Temperate cyclones are extra-tropical/mid latitude cyclones whose formation largely depends on frontal effect.
- The warm airmass of tropics and cold air mass from poles converge and conflict giving rise to convectional process that causes precipitation.
As per polar frontal theory the mechanism can be explained as:
- The cold air mass penetrates into warm sector
- The warm air rises and given the strength of cold airmass the warm sector shrinks and consequently the warm airmass uplifts gradually.
- The cyclone matures as isobars take circular shape and finally warm airmass is completely risen above with cold air at bottom which is known as occluded front
- Later precipitation occurs and occluded front dissipates causing cyclone to die.
Distribution of temperate cyclones:
As name suggests it occurs in the range of 35-65 deg latitudes on both hemispheres.
But it is more intense though incontinuous in north hemisphere’s winter due to southward extension of polar belt strengthening cold airmasses.
It is more continuous in southern hemisphere given the relatively less landmass.
Its spread across Mediterranean region in winter (responsible for western disturbances aided the subtropical westerly jet stream)
Canada and US, Baltic Sea region, temperate regions of Russia and Siberia.
Best Answer: Neverquit1234
Q.2) What is ‘subduction zone’? How does subduction lead to earthquakes. Also identify the major subduction zones of the world.
In the introduction, define subduction zone. Then in body part explain why and how subduction leads to earthquakes. Then mention major subduction zones around the world. Use diagram in the answer to fetch extra marks.
Subduction zones are plate tectonic boundaries where two plates converge, and one plate is thrust beneath the other, with atleast one plate being oceanic crust. The oceanic crust melts as it descends into the lithosphere and upper mantle. This process results in geohazards, such as earthquakes and volcanoes.
Points to be covered:
Reasons for earthquakes along subduction zones:
- The subducting plate gets locked with the overhead plate due to high friction. This results in build-up of frictional stress.
- As frictional stress builds along the boundaries, it is accompanied by an increase in strain in the adjacent rocks.
- When the frictional stress exceeds a critical value, a sudden failure occurs along the fault plane that can result in a violent displacement of the Earth’s crust.
- This displacement results in Earthquake that releases strain energy and seismic waves are radiated.
Major subduction zones of the world are located along Pacific ring of fire. Few of them are:
- San Andreas Fault- California
- Cascadia Subduction Zone- near Vancouver island
- Mexican Subduction Zone- southern Mexico
- Japanese Subduction Zone- Tohoku, Japan
- Chile Subduction Zone- Maule, Chile
Connecting the dots:
- Plate tectonics
- Landforms associated with various plate interactions
Best Answer: Aditi Dhaka
Q.3) How does tsunami differ from tides? Also examine the origin, propagation and effects of tsunami on the coastal ecosystem.
In introduction, define what Tsunami is. Then in body, differentiate between Tides and Tsunami in first paragraph. Then mention about its origin, propagation and effects.
Tsunami is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water due to factors like earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, meteorites impact or underwater explosion.
Points to be covered:
A tidal wave is a shallow water wave caused by the gravitational interactions between the Sun, Moon, and Earth. It is a daily event and much slower than tsunamis.
Tsunami, on the other hand is an extraordinary event occurring due to massive displacement of water. These waves travel at very high speeds
After an earthquake or other generating impulse occurs, vast amount of water is displaced. Gravity then causes the water to be returned to its original position which results in ripple formation developing into tsunami.
The waves have huge wavelengths whereas small amplitudes, coupled with very long wave periods. It enables these to go completely unnoticed in open seas.
As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces. But the change of total energy of the tsunami remains constant.
With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows. A tsunami, which was imperceptible in deep water, may grow to many meters high.
- Loss of human and animal lives and diseases
- Destruction of habitats
- Accumulation of debris
- Contamination of soil and water through toxic wastes, salinization, nuclear leakage
- Changes in landform e.g. massive erosion, drowning of small islands
Connecting the dots:
- Disaster management
- Spring tide and Neap tide
Best Answer : Optimistic
Q.4) Gender gaps come in the way of business competitiveness. India should take its slide in The Global Gender Gap rating seriously. Comment.
India slipped 21 places on the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Gender Gap index to 108, behind neighbours China and Bangladesh, primarily due to less participation of women in the economy and low wages.
‘Gender’ is a socio-cultural term referring socially defined roles and behaviors assigned to ‘males’ and ‘females’ in a given society; whereas, the term ‘sex’ is a biological and physiological phenomenon which defines man and woman.
In its social, historical and cultural aspects, gender is a function of power relationship between men and women where men are considered superior to women. Therefore, gender may be understood as a man-made concept, while ‘sex’ is natural or biological characteristics of human beings.
India’s present position in gender Index:
According to the WEF Global Gender Gap Report 2017, India has closed 67% of its gender gap, less than many of its international peers, and some of its neighbours like Bangladesh ranked 47th while China was placed at 100th.
- India’s greatest challenges lie in the economic participation and opportunity pillar where the country is ranked 139.
- The scale of India’s gender gap in women’s share among legislators, senior officials and managers as well as professional and technical workers highlights that continued efforts will be needed to achieve parity in economic opportunity and participation.
- In India, the workplace gender gap is reinforced by extremely low participation of women in the economy 136 out of the total 144 countries covered and low wages for those who work 136th ranking for estimated earned income,
- According to WEF on average, 66% of women’s work in India is unpaid, compared to 12% of men’s.
WEF began measuring the gap across four pillars —
- The workplace and
- Political representation
Reasons behind gender gap come in business competitiveness is:
- Socio-economic conditions like girl child is still seen as a bad investment because she is bound to get married and leave her paternal home one day.
- Thus, without having good education women are found lacking in present day’s demanding job skills;
- whereas, each year’s High School and 10+2 standard results show that girls are always doing better than boys.
- This shows that parents are not spending much after 10+2 standard on girl child and that’s why they lack in job market.
Women entrepreneurship has been recognized as an important source of economic growth. Women entrepreneurs create new jobs for themselves and others and also provide society with different solutions to management, organisation and business problems.
Here is a list of various government schemes and steps, to provide some loans exclusively for women that aim at promoting and easing out the process for them and to make them entrepreneurs:
- Annapurna Scheme
- Mudra loans
- Stand up India
- Mahila bank
- Promoting SHG’s
- Stree shakthi project
Competitiveness on a national and on a business level will be decided more than ever before by the innovative capacity of a country or a company. Those will succeed best who understand to integrate women as an important force into their talent pool.
Best answer: gargi
5. The problem of jurisdictional conflicts between Delhi’s elected government and the lieutenant governor (LG) is attributable to the conundrum called Article 239 AA of the Indian Constitution. Comment. Should this be amended? Examine.
The answer will have following parts.
- Background- A brief on Article 239AA
- Issue- Jurisdictional issues between Delhi’s government and LG has to be explained. One should not just mention the provisions of Article 239AA but discuss the related issues.
- Need of amendment- Yes but how.
Delhi, although a union territory, is administered under Article 239 AA, incorporated in the Constitution by the 69th Amendment, 1992.
Article 239AA creates a “special” constitutional set up for Delhi. It has provisions for popularly elected assembly, a council of ministers responsible to the assembly and a certain demarcation of responsibilities between the LG and the council of ministers.
The public order, police and land are reserved for the LG.
- Clause (4) deals with the exercise of power by the LG on the aid and advice of the council of ministers as well as the exercise of discretionary powers without such aid and advice. When these powers are exercised, there is a likelihood of conflicts between the council of ministers and the LG on the scope of the matters in the discretionary list and the other list.
- The LG was considered the final authority as per Delhi HC, but if he is the final authority then how can we hold the Delhi govt accountable.
- A LG, motivated by political considerations, could disagree with many decisions of elected government and refer them to the president.
- On one side is the democratically elected Delhi government and on the other side a constitutional post which more or less is under the control of the central government.
Presently, SC is looking into two main issues:
- Whether the elected government is the final authority in respect of matters assigned to it by the constitution.
- Whether the LG has primacy when a difference of opinion arises between him and his council of ministers on matters of governance.
Need of amendment:
- The purpose of the 69th constitutional amendment was to provide a democratic government for Delhi and not to enhance the powers of the LG.
- It is reasonable to refer discretionary matters to a higher authority like the president. But in regard to other matters of governance, the council of ministers should be left free to exercise the executive power as contemplated in Clause (4) of Article 239 AA.
- To remove the confusion in the text of Article 239 AA (4) it may be a fit case for the Supreme Court to read down the proviso to mean that the LG would refer to the president only matters concerning conflict of opinion on items reserved for the LG and those assigned to the assembly.
Supreme court is looking into the issues related to Article 239 AA. The matter should be put at rest so that a cordial atmosphere is created for administration to be run effectively in Delhi. Rising crimes in Delhi is at time attributed to this conflict, thus, fixing accountability along with responsibility is the need of the hour.
Connecting the dots:
- Statehood for Delhi
- Rising crimes in Delhi and Article 239AA
Best answer: Anupam Acharya