SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [7th February 2018]- Day 53
Q1. Is development deficit the only factor behind the spread of extremism? Critically examine.
- Since the keyword has “critically”, you have to cater to both sides of the argument
- First, discuss how development is a factor behind extremism
- Then move onto other factors and conclude accordingly
Extremism is holding very strong socio-political or religious views contrary to the status quo. This rise of extremism in India dates back to the Naxalbari movement in West Bengal in the 1960s. Other prominent extremist movements include the North East insurgency, Kashmir militancy etc.
Extremism needs a fertile ground to breed. Lack of development is one of the main providers of the fertile ground. It fosters poverty and unemployment which makes the population disillusioned with the state. For e.g. the Naxalbari movement started due to the botched up land reforms which were anti-poor and exploitative. Similarly, the north eastern regions have fallen behind the development race, as a result of which the insurgency movement persists.
However, lack of development alone cannot be sole reason for rise of extremist activities.
- These movements need an ideological foundation which is anti-state and it precedes any development deficit. For e.g. the north east insurgency is as much based on ethnic and cultural differentiation from Indian mainland as it is due to slow development
- Certain movements are rooted in history. For e.g. the Kashmir militancy which is a legacy of the haphazard partition combined with the proxy war waged by Pakistan through terrorism. Infact, lack of development in Kashmir is more an outcome than cause of Kashmir militancy.
- Social Exclusion and exploitation of marginalized sections such as scheduled tribes etc. These communities have been forced to evict and disproportionately pay the price for national development
- Poor governance, law and order in such areas also contributes to the rise of extremist elements. Instances of human rights violation by public personnel, poor social infrastructure, and government apathy are common. For e.g. in 2015, 22 tribal women died in Chhattisgarh due to improper sterilization.
Given India’s huge socio-cultural and geographic diversity, extremist movements in India owe their origin to multiple factors. Lack of development is as much an outcome as it a cause for such movements. They way going forward is a regionally balanced and inclusive growth process along with decentralized governance which empowers the affected people.
Best Answer: SST
Q.2) HOW IS THE ROHINGYA CRISIS A CHALLENGE FOR INDIA’S INTERNAL SECURITY? EXAMINE. ALSO SUGGEST MEASURES TO ADDRESS THE ISSUE EFFECTIVELY.
India is home to the largest number of refugees in South Asia yet it does not have a specific legal framework to deal with the problem. UNHCR stated that about 1,68,000 Rohingyas’ had fled Myanmar since 2012, when clashes with Buddhists erupted in the trouble-torn Arakan region. Over 40,000 of those Rohingyas’, who fled Myanmar, have entered India illegally, according to government’s estimate.
THE ROHINGYA CRISIS A CHALLENGE FOR INDIA’S INTERNAL SECURITY:
The government is concerned over Rohingyas’ stay in India for security regions.
- In its affidavit to the Supreme Court, the government said that some of the Rohingyas with militant background were found to be very active in Jammu, Delhi, Hyderabad and Mewat.
- They have been identified as having a very serious and potential threat to the internal and national security of India, the Centre told the Supreme Court.
- Government stated categorically that the government is looking for ways to deport over 40,000 Rohingyas living in the country illegally.
- The government is worried about the suspected infiltration of terror outfits among the displaced people living in various camps.
- India considers the issue as an internal affair of Myanmar. Indian believes that ASEAN has an undeniable responsibility to resolve this crisis.
- India does not want a conflict of interests with the new regime in Myanmar-Myanmar has a key role in India’s Look East Policy.
- India already has several issues like poverty, unemployment etc. for her own people.
Measures taken by the government:
- Refusing to bow under international pressure over Rohingya crisis, India made it clear that it would not compromise with the security concerns of the country.
- However, the government decided to extend help to Bangladesh in providing all amenities to the fleeing Rohingyas, who are being relocated in camps there. India also asked Myanmar to end persecution of Rohingyas.
The statelessness of the Rohingyas and the lack of empathy towards the plight of the Rohingyas have contributed to the adoption of extremist methods by them. If not addressed pragmatically, the Rohingya crisis will only cause more violence, leading to more refugees and chronic instability in the region. ASEAN, India and Bangladesh need to discuss the Rohingya crisis together to work for an optimum solution to the problem. The first step would be to convince the present government in Myanmar about the benefits of well-coordinated cooperation between ASEAN members, India and Bangladesh to tackle the issue. Along with that use all platforms to convince present regime through regional and international platforms about the need to resolve the crisis.
Best Answer: Maximus
3. The Pakistani territory has become a training ground for terrorists and militants posing a severe threat to India’s internal security. In this regard, examine the steps taken by the government to curb the menace of Pakistan sponsored and trained terrorism and militancy in India.
Terrorism has become an institution in Pakistan. The government in connivance with the army and intelligent service agencies have been accused of making Pakistan a breeding ground for non-state actors. This has posed a major threat for India’s internal security.
Step taken by the government:
- Diplomatic efforts- UN resolutions, though vetoed by China, has been taken up by the government to recognize Pakistan-sponsored terrorists like Hafiz Saeed as international terrorists.
- India has been trying to garner enough support for at United Nations for passage of Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism. This would make sponsor of terrorism a difficult affair.
- India has many a times raised the issue at international platforms like UNGA, directly indicting Pakistani government of promoting militancy against India in recent.
- Isolation of Pakistan. Boycott of SAARC grouping and active engagement with groupings like BIMSTEC.
- Direct/Surgical strikes
- Limiting infiltration- Fencing along India-Pakistan border.
- Demarginalization of Indian residing near India-Pakistan border. UDAAN scheme for youths of Jammu & Kashmir is one example.
What more needs to be done?
- Focusing on economic cooperation, strengthening cross-border trade. A well strategized economic diplomacy can lead Pakistani government mend its ways.
- Continuing bilateral talks.
- Diplomatic endeavors in garnering support against Pakistan must be strengthened. Improving relations with China would help as China in recent times has been a major roadblock in India’s actions against Pakistan at international platform.
Thus, overall India has adopted a two-fold strategy- By force and through talks, to handle the risk posed by Pakistan. Still to tackle the threat, international cooperation will be required and thus India must continue to pursue in this direction.
Best answer: Deadpool
4. The line differentiating external state and non-state actors creating challenges to India’s internal security has blurred in recent times. Do you agree? Illustrate.
- Introduction: Give small introduction differentiating State and Non-state actors.
- Body: In body, mention how the line between state and non-state actors are getting blurred. Examples are very important here.
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
State actors are those organizations or institutions who are part of government or recognized by their government. Whereas Non-state actors are those who are not part of any government setup. External state and non-state actors are those who are foreign to host nations. Like ISI, Hizbul mujahideen etc.
The line between state and non-state actors creating internal security issue for India has blurred due to link and co-operation between both of them like:
- State actor like Army ISI helping Hizbul Mujahideen, Jaish-E-Mohammed, Taliban etc. to create trouble to India and Indian like:
- 26/11, Pathankot.
- Kashmir Militancy.
- Ceasefire violations to help infiltrate.
- Indian Airlines flight 814 Hijacking.
- Khalistan group during 1980’s.
- Cyber-attacks on defence and economic installations.
- Ethnic clashes in Jammu and Kashmir.
- Drug supply in Punjab.
- Fake Currency.
- Chinese army and communist parties supporting separatist groups and Naxal groups by providing
- Arms and Ammunitions.
- Training etc.
- Since Bangladesh was then part of Pakistan, even after being independent then government supported Naxalites and separatist by providing:
- Safe haven to separatist groups.
- Training and arms support.
Note: Explanation is needed for all points. Important points that are required in body are given. 8-10 points are enough.
Indian security establishments and government institutions have to build security apparatus and infrastructure to prevent any damages to internal security. Capacity building is the need of hour along with strict laws to prevent any effects to country.
Connecting the dots:
- Organized Crime and Terrorist link.
Best Answer: Gargantuan
5. What are the challenges being posed by China’s Belt and Road initiative for India? Analyse.
- Introduction: Give a small intro about China’s OROB.
- Body: In body, the answer should be about challenges posed by OROB to India and How India is prepared to tackle them.
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
China is emerging to be a super power and contain US hegemony. In order to create its network and increase influence they have come up with an initiative called one road one Belt which is renewal of ancient silk route as 21st century Maritime Silk Road and Economic Belt.
Challenges pose by OROB to India:
- It connects CPEC: which passes through POK.
- String of Pearl theory.
- Military bases to secure route.
- Pacific route: Malacca strait.
- Indian Ocean control.
- Afghanistan: India might lose support with increased Chinese presence.
- Myanmar, Bangladesh inclination towards China.
- Trade deficit: Will increase Chinese trade around world.
- Market: India’s market will be affected.
- Products: low cost Chinese products.
- Central Asia: India’s Central Asia policy market will get affected.
How India is planning to tackle Chinese threat:
- Act East policy.
- New Central Asian Policy.
- Soft diplomacy with Afghanistan than hard power.
- Safe products: Organic products in case of Agriculture, Eco-friendly products etc. for European markets etc.
Note: Explanation is needed for all points. 8-10 points in total are enough.
China has huge treasury backing unlike India to investment on such large scale. But we can use our rich ancient route of cultural Hegemony and soft diplomacy to win over other countries. Also many initiatives are being taken by foreign and security offices to prevent any kind of threat to India’s sovereignty.
Connecting the dots:
- Sagarmala Project.
- Project Mausam.
Best Answer: Ali