SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [25th June 2018]- Day 1
Q.1 The Constitution of India has both colonial and nationalistic imprints. Substantiate.
- Give 2-3 lines introduction about constitution of India.
- Body should contain two parts. One for Colonial and another for nationalistic. Write preferably in points and underline keywords.
- Conclusion is must without that answer is incomplete.
The Constitution of India is an inclusive and accommodative document which includes features of Colonial, Nationalistic, liberal and post modernistic imprints to suit present and future generations.
- Nature of democracy: Parliamentary system, which was a colonial legacy, was adopted as the governance system for the independent India.
- Strong Centre: Residuary powers with Centre, emergency provisions, and lack of financial autonomy for states were all borrowed from the colonial era.
- Parliamentary provisions: Annual financial statement, ordinance making powers and certain parliamentary practices were continued from the pre-independence time.
- Non-exclusive domains of legislature, executive and judiciary: Interdependence among the three pillars was a feature of British India.
- Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP): Adopted from the ‘Instrument of Instructions’ contained in the Government of India Act, 1935.
- Bureaucracy: Indian Civil Service which the sardar patel called as Steel frame of India.
- Fundamental rights: These were based on the Karachi resolution of Congress in 1931.
- Gandhian principles of Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP): co-operative societies, Ban against slaughter, Women participation in public sphere.
- Economic planning: Socialist principles of congress.
- Fundamental duties: Though added later and not in original constitution.
- Preamble: Fraternity, Unity and integrity, Secularism, Socialism etc.
- Decentralization: Based on village self-governance. 73rd and 74th amendment.
- Education: In mother tongue or vernacular language.
Note: A line or two explanations is required for each point. 7-8 points depending on word limit is enough in exam.
The above features show that our constitution is blend of both colonial and nationalistic imprint. But at the same time, our founding fathers have made sure that it can be changed as per the requirements of changing times.
Best answer: El-Nino Modaki
Q2. The Constitution of India was made in the past but articulated in the constituent assembly. Elucidate.
- Give a brief introduction about the Constitution in 2 to 3 sentences.
- Mention and elaborate on the factors shaping the ideals of the Constitution.
- Conclude appropriately.
The Constitution is the supreme law of India. It has evolved gradually during the pre- independence era, beginning majorly from colonial rule and has inspired and shaped the vision of the Constitution.
Some of the shaping factors are:
- British colonial rule and the Freedom struggle:
The oppression leading to the enhanced importance of the rights of citizens like civil liberties (freedom of speech), etc., and through the freedom struggle has shaped the vision of the constitution.
INC session of Karachi’s resolution on Fundamental rights and National economic programme and other similar events.
- British governance Acts for India:
Starting from the Regulating Act of 1773 till the Indian Independence Act of 1947, especially Government of India Act of 1935
- International events:
French revolution (Republic, ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity), Russian revolution (ideals of justice), etc., has led to the increased importance and expansion of rights.
- Indian philosophy and thinkers:
Like Gandhi’s philosophy leading to the self-government institutions i.e, PRI (article 40 under DPSP), etc.
- Nehru report of 1928, the first attempt in drafting the Constitutional scheme indigenously had most of the present document’s ideals like fundamental rights, responsible government at the centre and in states, etc.
Thus, the Constitution is a gradually evolved document over a period of time and was carefully articulated by the constituent assembly.
3. Does in your opinion, the Indian Constitution draw on the philosophy of Enlightenment? Discuss.
Give a brief introduction regarding philosophy of Enlightenment. Then write about the various thinkers who have contributed to this philosophy along with its influence on the constitution.
Philosophy of enlightenment is referred to a collective of revolutionary intellectual ideas developed in Europe between 16-18th century. It broke the shackles of feudal system and built a new structure based on ideas like reason, rationality, humanism, liberty, equality.
These ideas along with some indigenous ideas have influenced the Indian constitution and paved the way for the nation building. Influence can be summarized as below-
- The democratic nature of the constitution which is built on the idea of sovereignty of people can be traced to the Social contract principle of Rousseau.
- Preamble talks about the idea of Liberty, equality and fraternity which has been influenced by French Revolution.
- The rule of law propounded by Article 14 has been influenced by ideas of philosophers like Hobbes, Locke.
- Separation of powers has been one of the hallmark of Indian constitution and has been derived from the thoughts of Montesquieu.
- The idea of welfare state underpinned by the Directive Principles of State Policy with Article 35 (social justice), Article 43 (living wage) etc have been influenced by the welfare state idea propounded by the western philosophers.
- Secularism has been part of the basic structure of the constitution. Article 25 to 30 highlight the nature of secularism in India. These have been inspired from the ideas of John Locke.
- The philosophy of Enlightenment has been built on rationality and reason. These have been incorporated in Indian constitution. Article 51A (h) has made development of scientific temper as one of the fundamental duties.
- Not just western thinkers but even Indian thinkers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Eshwar Chandra Vidyasagar who were instrumental in Indian Renaissance have also influenced the Indian constitution by conferring ideas like gender equality, educational importance etc.
Thus, it can be said that Indian constitution has given much importance to philosophy of enlightenment and has been instrumental in the overall welfare of Indian society both socially as well as politically.
Best Answer: Kunal Aggarwal
4. The government has recently decided to operationalise the National Financial Regulatory Authority(NFRA). What would be the functions of this organisation and why is it needed? Discuss.
- The main body will have two parts- functions of NFRA and its need.
- Introduction and conclusion is any answer is must.
- Relating the answer with recent turn of events (especially PNB scam) is must- to explain why the government has decided to operationalise the NFRA after the delay.
The Companies Act, 2013 proposed setting up of an independent audit regulator. However, the Union Cabinet has only recently approved the proposal for establishment of the National Financial Regulatory Authority (NFRA).
Functions of the organisation:
- Powers includes its ability to investigate, impose penalty and banning operations of auditors and audit firms.
- Setting the rules and regulations governing the audit sector.
- The NFRA will have the power to debar erring auditors or audit firm for up to 10 years and impose significant fines on them.
The jurisdiction of NFRA for investigation of Chartered Accountants and their firms would extend to listed companies and large unlisted public companies.
- The decision appears to have been prompted by the latest bank scam, the Punjab National Bank fraud, that went undetected by auditors.
- Loopholes in exisitng regulatory mechanism. Institue of Chartered Accountant (ICAI) has been inefficient in tackling corruption and/or negligence shown by the auditors.
- Global coherence- Most of the major economies of the world have independent audit regulators and umbrella bodies have come up that have provided an element of cohesion to these regulators.
The decision is expected to result in-
- Improved foreign/domestic investments and enhancement of economic growth.
- Supporting the globalisation of business by meeting international practices.
- Assist in further development of audit profession.
Operationalisation of NFRA is a step in the right direction and will help in reinstating the confidence of stakeholders and regulators. However, for its success it must be ensured that the body remains operationally independent, its decisions are subject to scrutiny and are transparent and its members maintain highest level of independence and prohibit conflicts of interest.
Best answer: Deadpool
5. The International solar alliance presents multiple opportunities for India. Analyse. Also, discuss its key objectives and challenges in its implementation.
In this question you need to introduce about ISA, mention it’s objectives, opportunities it presents to India, challenges faced by it and present a way to tackle these challenges.
International Solar Alliance is a global alliance of countries falling on or between the Tropics. It is the brainchild of India and was launched at Paris climate conference (2015) with Cooperation of France and is headquartered in India.
The overarching objectives of ISA are:
1) It aims to undertake Joint research and Development in production of cost and energy efficient Photo voltaic cells.
2) It aims to mobilize investments and funding for the solar energy initiatives across the world.
3) To form a coalition of solar resource rich countries to collaborate on addressing the identified gaps in their energy requirements (like Storage technology, addressing Variability of solar energy etc) through a common approach for increasing its deployment.
4) To enhance Energy security and help nations switch to the path of Sustainable development.
5) To address Global concerns like Climate change and help nations to adhere to INDC pledges under paris climate conference.
ISA presents numerous opportunities to India like:
1) Energy security : It reduces our dependence on fossil fuels, especially imports. It also helps provide electricity to remotest parts of the country and thereby helps in improving standard of living of the inhabitants of these areas.
2) Environmental security: It reduces pollution due to burning of fossil fuels and therefore decreases both health and ecological costs.
3) Economic opportunities: India can transform itself as a Global Manufacturing hub of photo voltaic cells. It can bring in Huge investments. Apart from earning valuable FOREX through exports, it can also boost employment and livelihood opportunities in India. Therefore helping us to harness our valuable demographic dividend.
4) Diplomatic opportunities: It helps in solidifying India’s position as a global leader in renewable energy production; it furthers global North-South and South-South cooperation (like training SOLAR MAMAS of Nigeria) and portrays India as a climate sensitive nation.
However, there are lot of challenges facing its implementation, viz:
1) Funding : Setting up of Solar energy plants is cost intensive. As, funds from Green Climate fund, WORLD BANK are inadequate, Developing world need huge financial support for its implementation.
2) Cost: Solar energy tariff will be higher in the initial years of production. So, it can be unpopular in Developing and 3rd world countries. So, there is a need to raise awareness about long term advantages of solar energy in the developing world.
3) Technology sharing: Western countries have most advanced solar energy technologies but are reluctant in devolving them to the developing world. Also, Solar dispute between developing country like India and US at WTO, can hamper it’s production. Addressing Storage and transmission technology needs emphasis as solar energy production is variable (day and night).
4) Climatic issues: With ever looming challenge of climate change, ISA needs to devise suitable energy mix strategies ( hybrid solar-wind mill, Solar tree by CSIR.
ISA presents a great opportunity to not only India but the entire world to tackle the challenges of Climate change holistically. Also, similar alliance in harnessing other forms of renewable energy can make the world more habitable for the generations to come.