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Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 28th February 2020

  • IASbaba
  • February 28, 2020
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IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 28th February 2020

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(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)


National Science Day 2020

Part of: GS Prelims

In news:

  • National Science Day is celebrated every year on 28 February by the Government of India to commemorate the discovery of the ‘Raman Effect’. designated 28 February as in 1986.
  • On this day, Sir C.V. Raman announced the discovery of the ‘Raman Effect’ for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1930
  • The Raman Effect is a change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules.

RAISE 2020

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Economy

In news:

  • It is India’s first Artificial Intelligence summit to be organized by the Government in partnership with Industry & Academia.
  • The summit will be a global meeting of minds to exchange ideas to use AI for social empowerment, inclusion and transformation in key areas like Healthcare, Agriculture, Education and Smart Mobility amongst other sectors.
  • It is being organised by Ministry of Electronics & IT

100 Springs Initiative

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II- Governance

In news:

  • It aims at improving access to safe and adequate water for the tribal communities living in difficult and inaccessible parts of rural areas in the country.
  • The initiative will help in harnessing the potential of perennial springs’ water to address natural scarcity of water in tribal areas.
  • It also includes provision of infrastructure for piped water supply for drinking; provision of water for irrigation; community-led total sanitation initiatives; and provision for water for backyard nutrition gardens, generating sustainable livelihood opportunities for the tribal people.
  • Launched by Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Mahadayi Water Row

Part of: GS Prelims- Geography and GS-II- Federalism

In news:

  • Centre issues notification on sharing the waters of inter-State Mahadayi among Karnataka, Goa, and Maharashtra
  • Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal in its 2018 order allocated 13.42 tmcft of water from the Mahadayi to Karnataka and 24tmcft to Goa while Maharashtra was allocated 1.3tmcft.
  • Of the 13.42 tmcft of water allocated for Karnataka, 5.5 tmcft is meant for use within the river basin and for diversion to the Malaprabha reservoir, and around 8 tmcft for power generation.
  • The notification also said the demand by Karnataka for diversion of 5.27 tmcft of water of Mahadayi river to the Supa reservoir of the Kali hydropower project for power generation has been rejected.

Prelims Value addition

  • Mahadayi or Mhadei or Mandovi, the west-flowing river, originates in Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary (Western Ghats), Belagavi district of Karnataka
  • The Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal was set up in 2010. Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra are parties to the tribunal.
  • Kalasa Banduri project is undertaken by the Government of Karnataka that involves diversion of Mahadayi river water to the Malaprabha river, so as to improve the drinker water supply in Northern Karnataka

(MAINS FOCUS)


Environment

Topic: General Studies 3:

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment. 

Eastern Ghats: A browning east

Context

Climate Change impact warnings for Eastern Ghats underscore the need for their protection

If the Western Ghats are the crown jewels of India’s natural heritage, the Eastern Ghats spread across some 75,000 sq. km. from Odisha to southern Tamil Nadu, 

About Eastern Ghats

  • Eastern Ghats run almost parallel to the east coast of India leaving broad plains between their base and the coast.
  • It is a chain of highly broken and detached hills starting from the Mahanadi in Odisha to the Vagai in Tamil Nadu. 
  • Eastern Ghats almost disappear between the Godavari and the Krishna. They lose their hilly character and are occupied by Gondwana formations (KG Basin is here).
  • They are eroded and cut through by four major rivers viz. Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri
  • Eastern Ghats are older than Western Ghats
  • The eastern Ghats are lower in elevation than the western ghats
  • The highest peak of Eastern ghats is the Mahendragiri (1500 m)
  • It receives an annual rainfall of 1200mm to 1500 mm
  • Western and the Eastern Ghats meet at the Nilgiri hills

Significance of Eastern Ghats

  • Fostering biodiversity and storing energy in trees. 
  • In these mountains exist a reservoir of about 3,000 flowering plant species, nearly 100 of them endemic, occurring in the dry deciduous, moist deciduous and semi-evergreen landscapes. 
  • Many animals, including tigers and elephants, and some 400 bird species are found in these discontinuous forests
  • Provides ecosystem services to millions.
  • Modulating Climate especially during the retreat of Monsoons (North Eastern Monsoon)

Eastern Ghats faces a threat from Climate Change

  • Disruption of the annual average temperature and diminished rainfall would decrease the productivity of these forests, in terms of their ability to store carbon, and provide subsistence material.
  • It also leads to impoverishment of areas experiencing rainfall reduction in the driest quarter of the year and a rise in seasonal temperature reflected in reduced plant species diversity 
  • By some estimates, the Ghats have shrunk by 16% over the past century, and just one region, Papikonda National Park (Andhra Pradesh), lost about 650 sq. km. in two decades from 1991.

Measures to be taken

  • Protecting the Eastern Ghats is an ecological imperative
  • Schemes for restoration of forest peripheries through indigenous plant and tree species must be pursued
  • Relieving the pressure on forests can be done through policies that reduce extraction of scarce resources and incentivise settled agriculture.
  • India should fulfil its commitments under the Paris Agreement to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes through enhanced forest and tree cover.

Conclusion

Improving tree cover nationally is certain to confer multiple benefits, including modulation of the monsoon, improved air quality and wider spaces for biodiversity to persist. Given the multiple role Eastern Ghats play, it is necessary that government take necessary steps to preserve it.


(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note: 

  • Correct answers of today’s questions will be provided in next day’s DNA section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers. 
  • Comments Up-voted by IASbaba are also the “correct answers”.

Q 1. National Science day is celebrated on 28th February to commemorate which event? 

  1. Formation of Indian Science Congress
  2. Birthday of Homi Jehangir Bhabha
  3. Discovery of Raman Effect by C.V.Ramans 
  4. None of the above

Q 2. Consider the following statements about 1000 Springs initiative

  1. It is an initiative by Ministry of Rural Development
  2. The It aims at improving access to safe and adequate water for the tribal communities living in difficult and inaccessible parts of rural areas in the country.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 Only
  2. 2 Only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q 3. Consider the following statements about RAISE 2020

  1. It is It is India’s first Artificial Intelligence summit
  2. It is organised by Ministry of Human Resource & Development in partnership with Industry & Academia.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 Only
  2. 2 Only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q 4. Mahadayi water dispute often seen in the news is related to which states? 

  1. Karnataka
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Goa
  4. Maharashtra

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 Only
  2. 1 and 3 Only
  3. 3 and 4 Only 
  4. 1,3 and 4 Only

ANSWERS FOR 27 FEB 2020 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE (TYK)

1 C
2 B
3 B
4 D

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