Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD)
Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II- Health
- Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) is a zoonotic disease (spreads from animals to humans – just like COVID-19, Ebola, HIV, Anthrax, SARS)
- KFD is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to South India.
- It was first identified in 1957 in a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka
- Hard ticks (Hemaphysalis spinigera) are the reservoir of KFD virus. Rodents, shrews, and monkeys are common hosts for KFDV after being bitten by an infected tick
- Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal, most importantly a sick or recently dead monkey. No person-to-person transmission has been described
- Larger animals such as cattle, goats or sheep may become infected with KFD but play a limited role in transmission of disease to humans
- Signs and Symptoms: After an incubation period of 3-8 days, the symptoms like chills, fever, headache, severe muscle pain, vomiting, gastrointestinal symptoms and bleeding may occur.
- Endemic Regions of KFD in India are:
- Tamil Nadu
- Kerala states
- Prevention: A vaccine does exist for KFD and is used in endemic areas of India. Additional preventative measures include insect repellents and wearing protective clothing in areas where ticks are endemic