Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 24th to 31st August, 2020
Ministry of Culture announces 7 new circles of Archaeological Survey of India
(Topic: Indian culture)
Trichy, Raiganj, Rajkot, Jabalpur, Jhansi and Meerut have been announced as new circles and Hampi Mini Circle has been converted into a full-fledged circle
Aim: To facilitate and strengthen the process of preservation and registration of archaeological monuments along with registration of artefacts with self-declaration
- Tamil Nadu has thousands of temples and glorious memories of the Chola kings, Trichy has been made a new circle along with the circle of Chennai.
- Hampi city in Karnataka is a place of international importance from the point of view of archaeological heritage therefore the Hampi Sub-Circle now has been made a new full fledged circle.
- In West Bengal, Raiganj has been made a new circle along with Kolkata, this will eliminate geographical inconvenience in a big state like Bengal.
- In Gujarat, Rajkot has been announced a new circle along with Vadodara.
- Jabalpur has been announced a new circle along with Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh. This will include the monuments from Jabalpur, Rewa, Shahdol and Sagar divisions.
- Jhansi in Bundelkhand and Meerut in western Uttar Pradesh have been announced two new circles along with Lucknow and Agra in Uttar Pradesh.
National Council for Transgender Persons
(Topic: Social empowerment of vulnerable population)
In exercise of the powers conferred by section 16 of the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 (40 of 2019), the Central Government has constituted a National Council for Transgender Persons.
The Union Minister of Social Justice & Empowerment will be Chairperson (ex-officio) and Union Minister of State for Social Justice & Empowerment will be Vice-Chairperson (ex-officio).
The National Council shall perform the following functions, namely:—
(a) to advise the Central Government on the formulation of policies, programmes, legislation and projects with respect to transgender persons;
(b) to monitor and evaluate the impact of policies and programmes designed for achieving equality and full participation of transgender persons;
(c) to review and coordinate the activities of all the departments of Government and other Governmental and non-Governmental Organisations which are dealing with matters relating to transgender persons;
(d) to redress the grievances of transgender persons; and
(e) to perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the Central Government.
The other members of the Council include representatives of various Ministries/Departments, five representatives of transgender community, representatives of NHRC and NCW, representatives of State Governments and UTs and experts representing NGOs.
A Member of National Council, other than ex officio member, shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of his nomination.
Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) – National Mission for Financial Inclusion, completes six years of successful implementation
(Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)
PMJDY is National Mission for Financial Inclusion to ensure access to financial services, namely, Banking/ Savings & Deposit Accounts, Remittance, Credit, Insurance, Pension in an affordable manner.
- Ensure access of financial products & services at an affordable cost
- Use of technology to lower cost & widen reach
Basic tenets of the scheme:
- Banking the unbanked – Opening of basic savings bank deposit (BSBD) account with minimal paperwork, relaxed KYC, e-KYC, account opening in camp mode, zero balance & zero charges
- Securing the unsecured – Issuance of Indigenous Debit cards for cash withdrawals & payments at merchant locations, with free accident insurance coverage of Rs. 2 lakh
- Funding the unfunded – Other financial products like micro-insurance, overdraft for consumption, micro-pension & micro-credit
The scheme was launched based upon the following 6 pillars:
- Universal access to banking services – Branch and BC
- Basic savings bank accounts with overdraft facility of Rs. 10,000/- to every household
- Financial Literacy Program– Promoting savings, use of ATMs, getting ready for credit, availing insurance and pensions, using basic mobile phones for banking
- Creation of Credit Guarantee Fund – To provide banks some guarantee against defaults
- Insurance – Accident cover up to Rs. 1,00,000 and life cover of Rs. 30,000 on account opened between 15 Aug 2014 to 31 January 2015
- Pension scheme for Unorganized sector
In 2018, the government launched PMJDY 2.0 with enhanced features and benefits. Under the new version, the government decided to shift focus from ‘Every Household’ to ‘Every Unbanked Adult’ and free accidental insurance cover on RuPay cards doubled to Rs 2 lakh for PMJDY accounts opened after August 28, 2018. At the same time Overdraft (OD) limit too doubled to Rs 10,000 and facility of OD up to Rs 2,000 without conditions was brought in.
- The number of total PMJDY accounts stand at 40.35 crore
- Rural PMJDY accounts stand at 63.6 percent while women PMJDY accounts stand at 55.2 percent.
- During first year of scheme 17.90 crore PMJDY accounts were opened.
The road ahead
- Endeavour to ensure coverage of PMJDY account holders under micro insurance schemes. Eligible PMJDY accountholders will be sought to be covered under PMJJBY and PMSBY. Banks have already been communicated about the same.
- Promotion of digital payments including RuPay debit card usage amongst PMJDY accountholders through creation of acceptance infrastructure across India
- Improving access of PMJDY account holders to Micro-credit and micro investment such as flexi-recurring deposit etc.
National Recruitment Agency
(Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment)
Cabinet approves creation of National Recruitment Agency (NRA), paving the way for a transformational reform in the recruitment process for central government jobs
NRA: A multi-agency body to encompass the first level test by the Staff Selection Commission (SSC), the Railway Recruitment Boards (RRBs) and the Institute of Banking Service Personnel (IBPS)
- Common eligibility Test (CET) to screen candidates at the first level for SSC, RRBs and IBPS
- A computer based online Common Eligibility Test (CET) for the Graduate, the Higher Secondary (12thpass) and the Matriculate (10th Pass) candidates as a path-breaking reform.
- CET in Every District: Ease of Access to Rural youth, women and disadvantaged candidates
- Multiplicity of exams will not be there
- Robust use of ICT to eradicate malpractices
- CET Score to be valid for three years, no bar on attempts
Recruitment Reform – a major boon for the youth
At present, candidates seeking government jobs have to appear for separate examinations conducted by multiple recruiting agencies for various posts, for which similar eligibility conditions have been prescribed. Candidates have to pay fee to multiple recruiting agencies and also have to travel long distances for appearing in various exams. These multiple recruitment examinations are a burden on the candidates, as also on the respective recruitment agencies, involving avoidable/repetitive expenditure, law and order/security related issues and venue related problems. On an average, 2.5 crore to 3 crore candidates appear in each of these examinations. A common eligibility Test would enable these candidates to appear once and apply to any or all of these recruitment agencies for the higher level of examination. This would indeed be a boon to all the candidates.
NITI Aayog releases report on Export Preparedness Index (EPI) 2020
(Topic: Indian Economy – Export)
NITI Aayog in partnership with the Institute of Competitiveness released the Export Preparedness Index (EPI) 2020.
The Indian economy holds immense potential to become a strong exporter on the world stage. To realize this potential, it is crucial that India turns to its states and union territories and makes them active participants in the country’s export efforts. In an attempt to realize this vision, the Export Preparedness Index 2020 evaluates states’ potentials and capacities. The detailed insights from this Index will guide all stakeholders towards strengthening the export ecosystem at both the national and sub-national levels.
The Export Preparedness Index is a data-driven effort to identify the core areas crucial for export promotion at the sub-national level. All the states and union territories have been assessed on crucial parameters that are critical for any typical economic unit to achieve sustainable export growth. The Index would be a helpful guide for the state governments to benchmark regional performance with respect to export promotion and thus deliver key policy insights on how to improve and enhance the same.
The first report to examine export preparedness and performance of Indian states, EPI intends to
- Identify challenges and opportunities;
- Enhance the effectiveness of government policies
- Encourage a facilitative regulatory framework.
The structure of the EPI includes 4 pillars –Policy; Business Ecosystem; Export Ecosystem; Export Performance – and 11 sub-pillars –Export Promotion Policy; Institutional Framework; Business Environment; Infrastructure; Transport Connectivity; Access to Finance; Export Infrastructure; Trade Support; R&D Infrastructure; Export Diversification; and Growth Orientation.
- Most Indian states performed well on average across the sub-pillars of Exports Diversification, Transport Connectivity, and Infrastructure. The average score of Indian states in these three sub-pillars was above 50%.
- Overall, most of the Coastal States are the best performers. Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu occupy the top three ranks, respectively. Six of eight coastal states feature in the top ten rankings, indicating the presence of strong enabling and facilitating factors to promote exports. In the landlocked states, Rajasthan has performed the best.
- Export orientation and preparedness are not just restricted to prosperous states. Even emerging states can undertake dynamic export policy measures, have functioning promotional councils, and synchronize with national logistical plans to grow their exports.
- Many northeastern states under the Growth Orientation sub-pillar were able to export more by focusing on their indigenous product baskets. This shows that a focused development of such baskets (like spices) can drive exports on one hand and also improve farmer incomes on the other in these states.
Export promotion in India faces three fundamental challenges:
- Intra- and inter-regional disparities in export infrastructure
- Poor trade support and growth orientation among states
- Poor R&D infrastructure to promote complex and unique exports
There is a need to emphasize on key strategies to address these challenges:
- A joint development of export infrastructure
- Strengthening industry-academia linkages
- Creating state-level engagements for economic diplomacy
These strategies could be supported by revamped designs and standards for local products and by harnessing the innovating tendencies to provide new use cases for such products, with adequate support from the Centre.
Inauguration of Plastic Waste Handling Facility at Kochi
(Topic: Environment; Waste Management)
Objective: The facility has the capacity to recycle about 150 kg plastic per hour and is capable of processing both soft and hard plastic waste into shredded plastic which can be used for various recycled options.
Initiatives across government and businesses for improving plastic waste management with the help of circularity are attributable largely to the omnipresence of plastics — as product, packaging, or waste. Today, disposable masks and PPEs, made of plastic (most notably single-use-plastics), have been at the frontline of our fight against COVID-19.
Single-use plastics (SUPs) are those that are discarded after one-time use. Besides the ubiquitous plastic bags, SUPs include water and flavoured/aerated drinks bottles, takeaway food containers, disposable cutlery, straws, and stirrers, processed food packets and wrappers, cotton bud sticks, etc. Of these, foamed products such as cutlery, plates, and cups are considered the most lethal to the environment.
If not recycled, plastic can take a thousand years to decompose, according to UN Environment, the United Nations Environment Programme. At landfills, it disintegrates into small fragments and leaches carcinogenic metals into groundwater. Plastic is highly inflammable — a reason why landfills are frequently ablaze, releasing toxic gases into the environment. It floats on the sea surface and ends up clogging airways of marine animals.
A three-pronged strategy can bring us closer to pragmatic and effective action — reduce plastic consumption, recycle, and reuse plastic products and waste to the maximum possible extent, and comprehensively manage plastic waste.
1. Reduce plastic consumption
- Will require considerable nudging and support from government to push manufacturers to develop products and packaging with use-for-use alternative materials
- The government may also have to provide support by enabling market access for such products, which if left to their own will face tough competition from cheaper plastic counterparts.
- Furthermore, retail units will need to pitch in by using price incentives to encourage consumers to reduce demand for plastic packaging.
- People will have to adopt more responsible consumption choices even if it entails inconvenience.
2. Recycle and reuse plastic products and waste
- Needs to be strengthened to bring back used plastic into the manufacturing cycle
- This strategy will achieve the twin goal of reducing entry of virgin plastics into the market, as well as reducing plastic waste burden in waste dumps, landfills, and oceans.
- The recently published Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) draft notification by the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change can be leveraged for this. Significantly, EPR places the responsibility of product after-use on the manufacturer.
3. Effective management of plastic waste
- A recent study suggested that the amount of littering in India may be 10–25 per cent of waste generated, far more than the 2 per cent observed in developed nations — a testament and reminder that our waste management, including segregation, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal is just not good enough. Citizens need to help by desisting from littering and diligently segregating waste at source.
- Our municipalities will have to organise comprehensive waste collection and disposal systems
The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 notified by the Centre called for a ban on “non-recyclable and multi-layered” packaging by March 2018, and a ban on carry bags of thickness less than 50 microns (which is about the thickness of a strand of human hair). The Rules were amended in 2018, with changes that activists say favoured the plastic industry and allowed manufacturers an escape route. The 2016 Rules did not mention SUPs.
Solve: Plastic is not the problem, our handling of it is.
ARIES astronomers trace the mystery behind dwarf galaxy aberrations of massive star formation
Amidst the billions of galaxies in the universe, a large number are tiny ones 100 times less massive than our own Milky-way galaxy. While most of these tiny tots called dwarf galaxies form stars at a much slower rate than the massive ones, some dwarf galaxies are seen forming new stars at a mass-normalized rate 10-100 times more than that of the Milky-way galaxy. These activities, however, do not last longer than a few tens of million-years, a period which is much shorter than the age of these galaxies – typically a few billion years.
Scientists observing dozens of such galaxies using two Indian telescopes have found that the clue to this strange behaviour of these galaxies lies in the disturbed hydrogen distribution in these galaxies and also in recent collisions between two galaxies.
- Star formation at a high rate requires very high density of Hydrogen in the galaxies. According to the study conducted by the ARIES team, the 1420.40 MHz images of several intense star-forming dwarf galaxies indicated that hydrogen in these galaxies is very disturbed.
- While one expects a nearly symmetric distribution of hydrogen in well-defined orbits in galaxies, hydrogen in these dwarf galaxies is found to be irregular and sometimes not moving in well-defined orbits.
- Some hydrogen around these galaxies is also detected in forms of isolated clouds, plumes, and tails as if some other galaxy recently has collided or brushed away with these galaxies, and gas is scattered as debris around the galaxies.
- The optical morphologies sometimes revealed multiple nuclei and high concentration of ionized hydrogen in the central region. Although galaxy-galaxy collision was not directly detected, various signatures of it were revealed through radio, and optical imaging, and these are helping to build up a story.
- The research, therefore, suggests that recent collisions between two galaxies trigger intense star formation in these galaxies.
INSPIRE faculty fellow developing low-cost biodiesel from microalgae
(Topic: Science and Technology)
While fossil fuels deplete, the fuel potential of algae residing in the vast marine environment surrounding India remains unexplored. Low-cost biodiesel from microalgae of marine origin may soon turn a reality.
- A scientist has been working on biotechnological studies and tools for increasing the lipid accumulation in microalgae for biodiesel production. He started exploring alternative fuels from renewable and sustainable sources.
- While different types of biofuels that have been explored recently, the use of microalgae has been strongly considered for the production of biofuels since they present a series of advantages over other biofuel feedstock, and this route to sustainable fuels inspired him.
- In his research he and his team have isolated predominant strains of marine microalgal species namely Picochlorum sp., Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., from the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu for their potential in terms of total organic carbon content, and Triacylglycerides(TAG) content for biodiesel production.
- They are now focusing on other microalgal candidates for their multiple biotechnological potentials and switchable polarity solvent (SPS) system based lipid extraction. SPS is an energy-efficient switchable solvent that can be recovered devoid of any thermal processes and can be reused as green solvent for algal lipid extraction with no effect on the environment.
- Metabolic engineering approaches can be used to escalate TAG accumulation for increasing biodiesel yield, and magnetic nanocomposite (MNC) can be used for several cycles of algal dewatering, and its treated culture suspension can be reused to scale down the biodiesel production cost significantly. These three approaches would be considered in their study for sustainable and low-cost production of biodiesel.
The group will formulate a roadmap by which biodiesel can be produced commercially and can be put in an energy market sustainably.
Prelims oriented News
President of India conferred the National Sports and Adventure Awards 2020 on National Sports Day: Read more
Online Dashboard of PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) launched: The online dashboard is dynamic, interactive and would provide a one stop solution to all stakeholders looking for information and tracking monitoring of progress of PM SVANidhi up to city level.
- Launched for providing affordable working capital loan to street vendors to resume their livelihoods that have been adversely affected due to Covid-19 lockdown. This scheme targets to benefit over 50 lakh Street Vendors who had been vending on or before 24 March, 2020, in urban areas including those from surrounding peri-urban/rural areas.
- Under the Scheme, the vendors can avail a working capital loan of up to Rs. 10,000, which is repayable in monthly instalments in the tenure of one year.
- On timely/ early repayment of the loan, an interest subsidy @ 7% per annum will be credited to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through Direct Benefit Transfer on quarterly basis.
- There will be no penalty on early repayment of loan.
- The scheme promotes digital transactions through cash-back incentives up to an amount of Rs. 100 per month. The vendors can achieve their ambition of going up the economic ladder by availing the facility of enhancement of the credit limit on timely/ early repayment of loan.
Experts from India – Bangladesh – Nepal and Myanmar come together for enhancing conservation of river Dolphins in the region pavingway for regional cooperation
River Dolphins a unique species found mainly in rivers of Asia and South America are vanishing rapidly. Gangetic Dolphin, the national aquatic animal of India has been declared endangered by International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Project Dolphin will aim at the protection and conservation of the Dolphins in the rivers and oceans of the country.
- The project will involve the conservation of aquatic habitat and Dolphins through the use of modern technology, especially in anti-poaching activities and enumeration.
- Project Dolphin will engage the fishermen and other rivers and ocean dependent populations to improve the livelihood of the local communities.
- The conservation of Dolphin will also envisage activities which will also help in the mitigation of pollution in rivers and the oceans.
- This is also a centre of attraction for tourism. Will empower the stakeholders like the river-dependent population in reducing river pollution and allowing sustainable fishery and river-based other livelihood options through scientifically oriented conservation methods.
- Fishery conservation efforts under Namami Gange through CIFRI would improve prey base in Dolphin habitat leading to enhanced Dolphin population.
- Dolphin education for students, community engagement and improving overall awareness.
- Latest under water acoustic methodology to be applied for Dolphin census. E-flow assessment and implementation from biodiversity point of view.
Government of India and AIIB sign agreement for $500 million Mumbai Urban Transport Project-III
- To improve the network capacity, service quality and safety of the suburban railway system in Mumbai
- The Project is expected to increase network capacity in the region with the reduction in journey time and fatal accidents of commuters.
- It is estimated that among primary beneficiaries of the project, 22% are female passengers who will benefit from improved safety and quality of service.
National Food Security Act 2013
- Government of India enacted the National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA).
- The Act covers upto 75% of the rural population and upto 50% of the urban population.
- The targeted population shall receive subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System, thus covering about two-thirds of the population.
- Ministry involved: Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution.
Jal Jeevan Mission
- JJM aims at providing potable water at service level of 55 litre per capita per day (lpcd) to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) by 2024.
- The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and states is 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States, 50:50 for other states, and 100% for Union Territories.
- Every village will prepare a Village Action Plan (VAP) which will have three components:
- Water source and its maintenance
- Water supply and
- Grey-water (domestic wastewater) management.
National Jal Jeevan Mission andMinistry of Electronics &Information Technology planning to conduct an ICT Grand Challenge. The purpose of the ICT grand challenge is to bring an innovative, modular, and cost-effective solution to develop a ‘Smart Water Supply Measurement and Monitoring System’ to be deployed at the village level.
Kisan Credit Cards
The Kisan Credit Card Scheme aims at providing adequate and timely credit support from the banking system under a single window with flexible and simplified procedure to the farmers to meet the short-term credit requirements for cultivation of crops, investment credit requirements for agriculture and allied activities and other needs. The KCC is necessary to procure good quality inputs to raise productivity and production.
In an effort to buffer the agricultural sector from the shock of COVID-19, a special saturation drive is underway to provide concessional credit to farmers through Kisan Credit Card (KCC). 1.22 crore KCCs have been sanctioned with credit limit of Rs. 1,02,065 crore. This will go a long way in reviving the rural economy and accelerating agricultural growth.
The Prime Minister of India paid tribute to social reformer Mahatma Ayyankali on his 157th birth anniversary.
- A social reformer who worked for the advancement of deprived untouchable people in the princely state of Travancore, British India. His efforts influenced many changes that improved the social well-being of those people, who are today often referred to as Dalits
- Formed Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham (SJPS) to work for low castes.
- Article 17 abolishes the practice of “untouchability”
- Article 21 guarantees the right to life and liberty, which includes the right to be free from degrading and inhuman treatment, the right to integrity and dignity of the person, and the right to speedy justice.
- Article 21: Right to legal aid
- Article 23 prohibits trafficking in human beings and other similar forms of forced labor.
- Article 24 provides that no child under the age of fourteen shall work in any factory or mine or engage in any hazardous employment.
- Article 15(4) empowers the state to make any special provisions for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens, or for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
- Article 16(4): The state is empowered to make “any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State”.
- Article 330 provides reservations for seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the Lok Sabha (the House of the People), while Article 332 provides for reservations in the state legislative assemblies.
- Article 338 established the National Commission for Scheduled Castes.
- Group of Monuments at Hampi is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Located in east-central Karnataka, India
- It became the pilgrimage cente of the Hindu religion.
- It was the capital of Vijayanagara Empire in the 14th century
- Hampi was a prosperous, wealthy and grand city near the Tungabhadra River,
- Hampi-Vijayanagara was the world’s second-largest medieval-era city after Beijing, India’s richest at that time,
- Vijayanagara Empire was defeated by a coalition of Muslim sultanates;
- its capital was conquered, pillaged and destroyed by sultanate armies in 1565, after which Hampi remained in ruins
- Described by UNESCO as an “austere, grandiose site”
- Includes “forts, riverside features, royal and sacred complexes, temples, shrines, pillared halls, mandapas, memorial structures, water structures and othersthere is evidence of Ashokan epigraphy, and it is mentioned in the Ra Virupaksha Temple, an active Adi Shankara-linked monastery and various monuments belonging to the old city.
About Virupaksha Temple
- Virupaksha Temple is located in Hampi in the Ballari district of Karnataka, India.
- It is part of the Group of Monuments at Hampi, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- The temple is dedicated to Virupaksha, a form of Shiva. The temple was built by Lakkan Dandesha, a nayaka (chieftain) under the ruler Deva Raya II of the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The Supreme Court confirmed the Karnataka government authorities’ decision to demolish buildings constructed in Virupapura Gaddi, an oval islet formed by the Tungabhadra and located west of the Hampi World Heritage site.
- The constructions were in violation of the Mysore Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act of 1961.
Hampi has various notable Hindu temples with some vedanta theology inside the temples, some of which are still active places of worship. Among the most notable are:
- Achyutaraya Temple
- BadaviLinga: This is the largest Linga image in Hampi. Located next to the Lakshmi Narasimha statue the Linga is housed inside a chamber with an opening in the front. A close look on this icon can reveal three eyes (depicting the three eyes of Shiva) carved on it. Legend has it that this was commissioned by a peasant woman and hence the name (Badva means poor in local tongue).The sanctum in which the Linga is installed is always filled with water as a water channel is made to flow through it.According to Hindu theology the River Ganga (Ganges) was brought from swarga to earth to quench the drought. But the river was so forceful that it could split the earth into two pieces if allowed to fall on earth. Lord Shiva consented to take the impact by allowing the torrent of Ganga to fall on his matted hair. Thus helping to release a smooth flowing river on to earth from his hair. As an iconic representation of this, in Siva temples you can spot a dripping pot hanged over the Linga.
- Chandramauleshwara Temple
- Malyavanta Raghunathaswamy temple was constructed in the ancient style of architecture, the temple of Malyavanta Raghunathaswamy stands 3 km down the road. Its inner walls flaunt peculiar and interesting motifs of fish and marine creatures.
- Hazara Rama Temple Complex: This ruined temple complex is well known for elaborate frescoes from the Hindu theosophy and a sprawling courtyard well-laid with gardens. It is well known for more than many thousand carvings & inscriptions on & in the temple depicting the mighty story of Ramayana. It has about 1000 carvings & inscriptions depicting the story of Ramayana.
- Jain Temple: Reliefs of Jain temples are present in this area hat includes Hemkut Jain temples, Ratnantraykut, Parsvanath Charan and Ganigatti jain temple. Most of the idols are now missing from these temples. Ruins suggest that these temples belong to 14th century.
- Krishna Temple Complex: This temple complex has been recently excavated through the last decade, and restoration work is still in progress. The temple has the Sacred Tank or the Pushkarani located on its eastern side.
Solve: The majestic ruins of the Vijayanagar empire in Hampi signify the refined style of temple architecture and sculpture art that was unparalleled. Discuss.