SYNOPSIS GS Paper 1 FULL MOCK[31st August,2020] Day 71: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 2): UPSC Mains Answer Writing
1. The tradition of folk paintings is deeply rooted in India’s rural lifestyle. Illustrate with the help of suitable examples.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write in detail about how the tradition of folk paintings is deeply rooted in India’s rural lifestyle with the help of suitable examples.
Folk Paintings are pictorial expressions of village painters which are marked by the subjects chosen from the epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata, Bhagvata Purana as well as daily village life, birds and animals and natural objects like sun, moon, plants and trees.
The folk paintings of India are very ethnic and simple, and yet colourful and vibrant enough to speak volumes about the country’s rich heritage. The folk paintings are deeply rooted in India’s rural lifestyle as follows:
- Folk painting is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people in villages; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
- For instance, In Madhubani Paintings which is the folk painting of Bihar. In this painting, the Kohbar (traditional room of the married couple) in the folklore of Bihar region are drawn as painting. In this style of folk painting, the scenes of Ramayana and the images Hindu God-Goddesses are depicted on the canvas.
- The folk group is not individualistic, but is a function of shared community-based identity.
- For instance, Pithora Painting It is the folk painting of Rathvas and Bhilalas tribes of Gujarati. It is more than ritual rather than art form.
- The design and production of folk art is learned and taught informally or formally; folk artists are not self-taught.
- For instance, Pattachitra Art is folk painting of Odisha. Paintings are based on the Subhadra, Balrama, Lord Jagannath, Dashavatara and the scenes related to the life Lord Krishna. They are manifested with rich outline, red, yellow, ochre, white and black colours.
- Linked to religion: These are related to mythology, stories from epics etc. For example, Kalighat Pat Art, It is folk painting of West Bengal. It originated in the vicinity of kalighat Kali Temple (Kolkata). In this art form, various Hindu Gods and other mythological characters are drawn.
- Transmission is a vital part of the folk paintings process. There are two important elements of transmission: One is the tradition-bearer, who is the individual who actively passes the knowledge of an artefact; and second one is the audience. Audience is the other half in the transmission process; they listen, watch, and remember. Many of them become passive tradition-bearer.
- Warli Art: It is famous in Maharashtra. It is made by the local tribes of the Warli and depicts the scenes from the social and cultural life of these groups. In this art form, chewed bamboo stick is used as brush and mixture of rice paste and water gum is used as colour.
- Folk paintings are created to serve some function in the daily life. A ground-breaking book by George Kubler on the history of art states that “every man-made thing arises from a problem as a purposeful solution”.
- Aesthetics of the genre: Being part of the community, the craftsman is well aware of the community aesthetics.
India has a long tradition of paintings which depict the essential things about our culture. There are various schools, some even overlap. Here, we can arrive at conclusion that folk paintings are not just deeply rooted in the Indian rural culture but also they have influenced the rural lifestyle and also got influenced by the rural lifestyle due to their religion and daily life centric themes.
2. Over a period of time, India’s classical and folk music have intermingled to create forms that take elements from both classics and folk. Comment.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write both side view of whether India’s classical and folk music have intermingled to create forms that take elements from both classical and folk.
Indian pop music is based on an amalgamation of Indian folk and classical music, and modern beats from different parts of the world. The two main traditions of Indian classical music are Carnatic music, which is found predominantly in the peninsular regions, and Hindustani music, which is found in the northern, eastern and central regions.
Intermingling of classical and folk music:
- Combining classical and folk music is of course not new; many composers have sought to access the ‘spirit’ of folk music.
- On the surface, folk and classical music are certainly very different; they inhabit different worlds, have different social functions, different methods of learning.
- However, over the period of time they have intermingled in such a way which created new form of music by taking the elements from both classical and folk.
- The basic concepts of Classical music includes shruti (microtones), swaras (notes), alankar (ornamentations), raga (melodies improvised from basic grammars), and tala (rhythmic patterns used in percussion).
- Whereas Folk music is primarily based on diverse themes and full of brisk rhythm. They are also set on beats so they can be dance oriented.
- Intermingling of folk music and classical music led to intermingling the basic concepts of both the forms.
- For instance, The brisk rhythm is combined with the raga and tala. Such kind of music can be observed thrugh the songs of some the singers such as Shaan, Daler mehandi and Baba sehgal etc.
- Bhangra is a form of dance-oriented folk music of Punjab. The present musical style is derived from non-traditional musical accompaniment to the riffs of Punjab called by the same name.
- Dandiya or Raas is a form of Gujarati cultural dance that is performed with sticks. The present musical style is derived from the traditional musical accompaniment to the folk dance. It is practiced mainly in the state of Gujarat. There is also another type of dance and music associated with Dandiya/Raas called Garba.
However, the classical music and folk music due to its distinctness has kept its originality alive in following ways:
- Folk music is not taught in the same way that Indian classical music is taught. There is no formal period of apprenticeship where the student is able to devote their entire life to learning the music, the economics of rural life does not permit this sort of thing.
- The folk music is an indispensable component of functions such as weddings, engagements, and births. There is a plethora of songs for such occasions. There are also many songs associated with planting and harvesting. In these activities the villagers routinely sing of their hopes, fears and aspirations.
- However, classical music requires specifically devoted time for its practise. it also requires that music is performed in its own set of framed rules.
- The instruments of classical music are crafted by artisans whose only job is the fabrication of musical instruments. In contrast the folk instruments are commonly crafted by the musicians themselves.
Besides classical music India has a rich legacy of folk music. Both music traditions have evolved over the time in their respective genre and also intermingled to give rise to new form of styles by taking elements from both of the music traditions. Hence, it becomes imperative to secure the tradition of both the music styles besides helping to nurture the rise of newly emerged style of music.
3. The classical Sanskrit is the vehicle of Indian culture. Do you agree? Substantiate.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to express their views about whether classical Sanskrit is the vehicle of Indian culture or not with relative examples.
Classical Sanskrit is an Indo-Aryan or Indic language of the ancient Indian subcontinent with a 3,500-year history. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism.
The early Vedic form of the Sanskrit language was far less homogenous, and it evolved over time into a more structured and homogeneous language, ultimately into the Classical Sanskrit by about the mid-1st millennium BCE.
- The language in the early Upanishads of Hinduism and the late Vedic literature approaches Classical Sanskrit.
- Rich tradition of Indian culture is carried forward by the classical Sanskrit through various literatures.
- With Panini (probably 4th century B.C.) the Sanskrit language reached its classical form. It developed a little thense forward except in its vocabulary.
- The grammer of Panini, Asthadhyayi, pre-supposes the work of may earlier grammarians. Latter grammars are mostly commentaries on Panini, the chief being Mahabashya by Patanjali (second century B.C.) and the Banaras-commentary of Jayaditya and Vamana (seventh century A.D.).
- The classical period of Sanskrit literature dates to the Gupta period and the successive pre-Islamic Middle kingdoms of India.
- This period is known for development of Sanskrit literature in all genres viz. Drama, Scholarly treatises, Stories, Epic Poems, Literature related to Science and Technology and the Puranas.
- The earliect surviving Sanskrit poetry is that of the Buddhist writer Ashvaghosa who probably lived in the Ist century A.D.
- Aśvaghoṣa (Circa. 80 – 150 AD) is considered to be the first Sanskrit Dramatist of the world. Asvaghosha wrote in Classical Sanskrit.
- Buddhacharita: Asvaghosha’s work, Buddhacharita is an epic style classical Sanskrit work. It mainly deals with Buddha’s Life.
- Śūdraka has become immortal in the form of three Sanskrit Plays ascribed to him viz. Mricchakatika (The Little Clay Cart), Vinavasavadatta, and a bhana (short one-act monologue), Padmaprabhritaka.
- Svapnavasavadattam is the best known work of Bhasa which is also written in the classical Sanskrit.
- Kalidasa is the immortal poet and playwright of India and a peerless genius whose works in classical Sanskrit became famous worldwide in modern world.
- Kalidasa has written Mālavikāgnimitram, Abhijñānaśākuntalam, Raghuvamśa, Meghaduta in classical Sanskrit. These texts rightly depict the Indian culutre in its true form.
- These works in classical Sanskrit by the famous writers such as Kalidasa, Sudraka, have not only shown the rich tradition of the Indian culture but also they have carried forward the Indian culture through the essence and morals of the stories.
- The Girnar inscription of Rudradaman, dated 150 A.D. is the earliest surviving example of Sanskrit prose.
The importance of Sanskrit can be recognized by the fact that – the Vedas, the Upanishads the Puranas and the Dharmasutra. These are secular and regional literature were written in Sanskrit.
When we read the literature written in the classical language of Sanskrit. It helps us in understanding our civilization better and also makes us appreciate the diversity and richness of our culture.
Classical Sanskrit is perhaps the only language that kept evolving even beyond the barriers of regions and boundaries. From the north to the south and the east to the west there is no part of India that has not contributed to or been affected by this language. Hence, it can be truly said that classical Sanskrit has proved to be the right vehicle of Indian culture as it has carried forward Indian culture and even helped to improve its characteristics.
4. Discuss the causes and significance of working class movements during India’s freedom struggle.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write the complete picture about the reasons and importance of working class movement during India’s freedom struggle.
The modern Indian working class movement arose in consequence to the development and growth of factory industries in India from the second half of the nineteenth century. It is however about the turn of the twentieth century, where it took the shape of working class movement.
The actions of the working class in the earliest stage were sporadic and unorganised in nature and hence were mostly ineffective. It is only from the late 19th century in Madras, and from the second decade of the twentieth century in Bombay that serious attempts were made for the formation of associations that could lead organised form of protests. Causes of working class movements are as mentioned below:
- The Indian working class suffered from the same kind of exploitation witnessed during the industrialisation of Europe and the rest of the West, such as low wages, long working hours, unhygienic and hazardous working conditions, employment of child labour and the absence of basic amenities.
- The presence of colonialism in India gave a distinctive touch to the Indian working class movement.
- The Indian working class had to face two basic antagonistic forces—an imperialist political rule and economic exploitation at the hands of both foreign and native capitalist classes.
- The early nationalists, especially the Moderates, were indifferent to the labour’s cause.
- They differentiated between the labour in the Indian owned factories and those in the British-owned factories.
- They believed that labour legislations would affect the competitive edge enjoyed by the Indian-owned industries.
- The moderates did not want a division in the movement on the basis of classes.
- The moderates did not support the Factory Acts of 1881 and 189 for these reasons.
- The first world war led to rise in exports, soaring of prices and massive profiteering opportunities for the industrialist and but very low wages for the workers. This led to discontent among workers.
Thus, earlier attempts to improve the economic conditions of the workers were in the nature of the philanthropic efforts which were isolated, sporadic and aimed
at specific local grievances. Hence arouse the need to have a working class movement which will show support for eradication of plight of labourer and help to provide them a better dignified life. The significance of working class movements is as mentioned below:
- Some of the earlier efforts were made to provide a foundation for the working class movement.
- Such as in 1870 Sasipada Banerjea started a workingmen’s club and newspaper Bharat Shramjeevi.
- Also in 1880 Narain Meghajee Lokhanday started the newspaper Deenbandhu and set up the Bombay Mill and Millhands Association.
- However, The unorganised movement of the workers took an organised form; trade unions were formed on modern lines nearly around 1918.
- In several ways the decade of the 1920s is crucial in this regard. Firstly in the 1920s serious attempts were made by the Congress and the Communists to mobilise the working class and hence from then onwards national movement established a connection with the working class.
- Secondly, it was in 1920 that the first attempt to form an all India organisation was made; in this decade, India witnessed a large number of strikes; the strikes were prolonged and well participated by the workers.
- As a result many of the prominent leaders like G. Subrmaniyam Aiyar, Bipin chandra pal demanded better conditions for workers and pro-labour reforms.
- Workers participated in wider political issues which was a shift from earlier agitation on earlier economic issues.
- The number of strikes rose sharply and also it graduated from unorganised strikes to organised strikes.
- First attempt at trade union organisations were springing up all over India during the period of 1920’s. During the visit of Prince of wales in 1921, most of the factories were closed and workers went on strike, participating in rioting and attack on Europeans.
- The starting point of Indian trade unionism is commonly derived from the Madras labour Union, formed by B.P. Wadia, an associate of theosophist Annie Besant in 1918.
- Due to these activities of workers class movement British government showed some steps by forming Bengal Committee department in 1919-20, Bombay Industrial dispute committee of 1922, and Madras labour department in 1921.
- The trade unions act of 1926, recognised trade unions as legal associations.
- The workers class movement also led to formation of All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) which then led the cause of workers plight from National to International level.
- Around 1938 AITUC came forward with an extensive and bold economic and political programme with the aim of establishment of socialist statue in India.
- The last years of colonial rule saw a remarkably sharp rise in the on economic issues all over the country. Sharp rise in prices, comparatively low wages and brutal nature of colonial rule exposed the workers class movement to the limit of their tolerance which resulted in the workers class movement getting synchronised with the Indian freedom struggle for better cause of Independence.
During Indian freedom struggle workers movement put forward the plight of the workers and fought for their causes. Along with fighting for the betterment of the workers, the working class movement also intermingled with and supported the greater cause of Freedom struggle of India.
5.How did the formation of the Muslim League impact the freedom struggle? Critically analyse.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write in detail about the impact of formation of Muslim league on the freedom struggle.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as the Muslim League) was a political party established in 1906 in British India. Its strong advocacy for the establishment of a separate Muslim-majority nation-state, led to the partition of India in 1947 by the British Empire.
The party arose out of a literary movement begun at The Aligarh Muslim University and was formed in Dhaka (now in Bangladesh) many years after the death of Syed Ahmad Khan who was central figure for the formation of the University. It remained an elitist organisation until 1937 when the leadership began mobilising the Muslim masses and the league then became a popular organisation.
- Earlier to the formation of Muslim league the freedom struggle of India was mainly focussed on the freedom from the oppressive rule of British with India being whole entity where no communal tensions were persistent.
- The Muslim leagues following objectives however changed the whole scenario of Freedom struggle of India.
- The objectives of the league were: To create among Muslims the feelings of loyalty towards the British Government. To safeguard the political rights of the Muslims and to convey the same to the government. To prevent the rise of prejudice against other communities of India among the Muslims.
- The AIML’s chief aim was to promote and secure civil rights for Muslims. It espoused loyalty to the British government as a means to achieve more political and civil rights.
- When the Congress party was opposed to the government and fighting for the gradual establishment of an independent India, the league propounded loyalty to the government. They, in fact, provided the government with a tool to fight the growing nationalism in the country.
- Even though partition of the country was not on the minds of Indian Muslims in the early years of the league, it came into the picture after 1930.
- Leaders of the league began the propaganda that Hindus and Muslims are not one nation and have separate cultures and identities although they have been cohabitating for centuries.
- In 1940, Jinnah gave a speech in Lahore in which he talked of the impossibility of living as one nation. In response to this, some members of the league who were opposed to the Two-Nation Theory broke away from the party and formed the All-India Jamhur Muslim League (AIJML). The AIJML later merged with the Congress party.
- In 1939, the Congress ministries resigned following the viceroy’s declaration that made India a party to the Second World War. The league urged Muslims to celebrate December 22 as Deliverance Day.
- The party, under Jinnah, spearheaded the campaign for Pakistan throughout the 1940s and was successful in its mission of dividing the country. The country was partitioned along communal lines along with independence in 1947.
Taking advantage of absence of majority of leadership of Indian National congress after 1942, Muslim League used 1942-45 period for propaganda of demand of Pakistan and took it to Muslim masses. By 1947 communal violence and political mistrust gripped over the country. It led to the partition of India which is the biggest impact of formation of Muslim league on freedom struggle of India.
6.Why did the Congress accept the partition of the country? Was it a good decision? Critically comment.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about both aspects of the reasons for the acceptance of partition of the country by the congress. It also expects candidates to express their view on whether it was a good decision or not.
“Partition”– the division of British India into the two separate states of India and Pakistan – was the “last-minute” mechanism by which the British were able to secure agreement over how independence would take place.
At the time, few people understood what Partition would entail or what its results would be, and the migration on the enormous scale that followed took the vast majority of contemporaries by surprise. The reasons for acceptance of partition by congress are as follows:
- The Congress was only accepting the inevitable due to its failure over the years to bring the Muslim masses into the nationalist mainstream.
- This was also due to congress failure to stem the surging waves of Muslim communalism, especially, since 1937. This failure was evident from results on 1946 elections in which Muslim League won 90 per cent of Muslim seats.
- However, the point of no return was reached a year later when the battle for Pakistan was no longer confined to the ballot box but came to be fought on the streets.
- While the congress leaders were adamant on not surrendering to the blackmail of violence, they finally accepted Partition most of all because they could not stop communal riots.
- By June 1947, the Congress leaders had realized that only an immediate transfer of power could check the menace of the communal violence which was spreading quickly due to the Muslim League s call for Direct Action.
- Immediate transfer of power would at least mean the setting up of a government which could exercise the control it was now expected to wield, but was powerless to exercise.
- The breakdown of the Interim Government only confirmed the inevitability of Pakistan. The congress leaders were dismayed at the turning of the Interim Government into an arena of struggle.
- Another consideration in accepting partition was that it firmly ruled out the specter of the ‘balkanisation’ of the country. The partition plan laid out by Lord Mountbatten had ruled out independence of the princely states which would have had the prospect of balkanisation of the country.
- Princely states standing out would have meant a graver blow to Indian unity than Pakistan was.
Thus, the acceptance of Partition in 1947 was nothing but culmination of the step by step concession granted to the League in its rhetoric of a sovereign Muslim state.
- Autonomy of Muslim majority provinces was accepted in 1942 at the time of the Cripps Mission.
- Gandhiji in his talks with Jinnah in 1944 went a step further and accepted the right of self-determination of Muslim majority provinces.
- In June 1946, Congress finally conceded the possibility of a separate constituent assembly formed by the Muslim majority provinces (included under the Group B and C of the Cabinet Mission Plan).
- At first, congress opposed compulsory grouping and upheld the right of NWFP and Assam not to join their groups if they so wished. Later, Congress accepted without demur that the groping was compulsory.
- Official reference to Partition came in early March 1947 when the Congress Working Committee passed a resolution that Punjab and Bengal must be partitioned if the country was divided.
- Congress accepted the partition formula laid in 3rd June Plan of Lord Mountbatten.
Thus, we can see that INC was forced against its wishes to accept Partition of our land, against its wishes. It had already granted many concessions to Muslim League before.
- By 1947, it was not for the Indian National Congress to accept or reject partition. The
- Frankenstein monster built by the British in the form of the Muslim league was out for its pound of flesh.
- Hence, when we look back at history we can clearly say that it was the decision taken against the wishes of the people and the leaders of those times as the communal situation created by the forces of Muslim league was out of control.
Both states subsequently faced huge problems accommodating and rehabilitating post-Partition refugees, whose numbers swelled when the two states went to war over the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir in 1947-8. Later bouts of communal tension generated further movement, with a trickle of people still migrating as late as the 1960s.
Hence, INC accepted partition not out of choice but out of necessity to stop the violence based on the communalism and other circumstances. Thus the Congress had to choose lesser evil and moreover achieving Pakistan was the ultimate motive of Muslim league.
7. What according to you were the three most important achievements during the era of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru as the Prime Minister? How did these achievements shape India’s future in the long run? Analyse.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about the three most important achievements during the era of Pandit Jawahrlal Nehru as the Prime minister. It also expects to write about the impact of these achievements in shaping India’s future in the long run.
Pandit Jawaharlal was an Indian independence activist and, subsequently, the first Prime Minister of India, as well as a central figure in Indian politics both before and after independence. He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement, serving India as Prime Minister from its establishment in 1947 as an independent nation, until his death in 1964.
The five principal pillars of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s legacy to India — Nation-building, Democratic institution-building, Secularism, Democratic Socialist economics, and a Novel foreign policy (Non-alignment, Panchsheel) still form the cardinal values of India.
Three major achievements and their impact on shaping future of India:
- Through the planned economy approach, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru envisaged that in a land of extreme poverty and inequality, the objective of government policy must be the welfare of the poorest, most deprived and most marginalised of the people.
- This notion drives the policy of successive governments that poverty and inequality in India cannot be tackled only by the market.
- It can be reflected in creation of a framework of rights, including the right to work, the right to food, the right to education and the right to fair compensation for land, all of which have empowered the poorest of people in India.
Establishing Institutions of Excellence:
- It was Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s who built the scientific base for India’s space and engineering triumphs today.
- With the establishment of what is now the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), India has achieved the status of Space power today.
- With the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) established in his tenure, Indians have a worldwide reputation for engineering excellence.
- Also, he laid the foundations of a dual-track nuclear programme due to which India achieved nuclear-capable status.
- Also, the economic policies of investing in heavy industries and protecting the nascent manufacturing sector, helped India to substitute imports to a certain extent.
- For Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s , Non-alignment (NAM) was the response to the bipolar divisions of the Cold War era.
- After two centuries of British rule, Nehru was determined to protect the country’s strategic autonomy without compromising independence by aligning itself to either superpower in the Cold War.
- This policy of NAM, made India one of the most distinguished leaders of Third World solidarity, reached out to the rest of the colonised world, and forged a joint front against colonialism and a reinvented imperialism.
- Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was also a skilled exponent of soft power, much before the term was even coined.
- He developed a role for India in the world based entirely on its civilisations history and its moral standing, as the voice of the oppressed and the marginalised against the hegemony of the day.
- This gave India global reputation and prestige across the world for years, and strengthened our self-respect as we stood, proud and independent, on the global stage.
The fears of growing intolerance, communalism and inequality which may disrupt social harmony; debates in Indian intelligentsia about the erosion of democratic values, freedom of speech and autonomy of public institutions; the emergence of a new era of the Cold War between the US and China, marks the relevance of Nehruvian ideology even today.
8.Why is the Shah Bano controversy a watershed in India’s history as a secular nation? Examine.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about the reasons due to which Shah Bano controversy became a watershed in India’s history as a secular nation.
The Mohd. Ahmad Khan vs. Shah Bano Begum & Ors. or the Shah Bano maintenance case is seen as one of the legal milestones in battle for protection of rights of Muslim women. The petitioner asked for maintenance from her husband after he pronounced irrevocable talaq and became unaccountable for providing maintenance as per Islamic law.
The Supreme Court upheld the right to alimony in the case, however, subsequent dilution of it by the then government, through passage of Muslim Women (Protection on Rights of Divorce) Act set off a political battle which is continuing to this day.
- The Act allowed maintenance to a divorced woman only during the period of iddat, or till 90 days after the divorce. This was seen as discriminatory as it denied divorced Muslim women the right to basic maintenance which women of other faiths had recourse to under secular law.
- The Act was seen as ‘appeasement’ of the minority community and discriminatory to non-Muslim men by the Hindu communalists.
- It set off a chain of events that continued up to the opening of the Ram mandir, to satisfy the hindu communalists, and eventually the demolition of Babri Masjid.
- Minority community was seen as a good vote bank by keeping them away from social reforms that could have disturbed the conservative elements. The impact can be seen even today, in dismal social indicators in Muslim community.
- Freedom of Religion (Article 25) was given priority over Right to Equality (Article 14,15) and Right to Life (Article 21).
- Uniform Civil code (Article 44), which was incorporated under Directive Principles of State Policy aiming for a secular society, is now seen as a threat to minority personal laws.
- Whereas Women of other religion are being given more rights and protection against discrimination and violence, Muslim women still suffer from practices like triple talaq, nikah halala, polygamy etc. with no law to protect them.
The case laid the ground for Muslim women’s fight for equal rights in matters of marriage and divorce in regular courts, the most recent example being the Shayara Bano case in which the Supreme Court invalidated the practice of instant triple talaq.
Hence, the Shah Bano controversy a watershed in India’s history as a secular nation.
However, unlike the previous case, this time the individual rights were given priority over the religious rights through introduction of Triple talaq bill, settling the political debate that started through the Shah Bano case.
9.What were the factors that led to the emergence of coalition era in India’s politics? What was its impact on India’s polity and economy? Critically evaluate.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about the factors that led to the emergence of coalition era in India’s politics. It also expects to write about its impact on India’s polity and economy.
The modern era of coalition politics has come into being as a consequence of the development of the multi-party system. The death of the then Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, corruption cases (Bofors scandal), economic crisis, all set the tone for an era of coalitions that has lasted for almost twenty five years of coalition governments.
Factors for the emergence of Coalition era:
- India’s Immense social diversity and the considerable institutionalization of its democratic political framework have had· a significant impact’ on the party system.
- Social diversity has had a double effect. In the arena of political mobilization, it has accentuated appeals to ethnic identities.
- There was no party at the all-India level that can claim to enjoy a full majority.
- Even P.V. Narasimha Rao’s government was formed when the Congress did not have absolute majority. With the Common Minimum Programme, the group led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) formed the government after the 1999 elections; the coalition was called the NDA, the National Democratic Alliance.
- Indian society is so heterogeneous, and its population are so large, people there have a wide array of identities available to them. Which also contributed to availability of wide array of choices to the people while voting.
- The heterogeneous nature of society contributed to the rise of regional parties such as Shivsena in Maharahstra, Telugu Desam party in Andhra Pradesh etc.
- The rise of these regional parties which looked for the interest of the locals over there led to diversion of vote bank from the National level parties.
- The son of soil theory and related impact of the policies on the local issues led to the preference for the regional parties in Indian politics.
- Subsequent current developments in the National level politics also contributed for the diversion of votes based on religion.
- For instance, the Shah bano case and subsequent demolition of Babri masjid led to communalisation of votes in Indian politics.
- Rise of different ideological parties and factions within parties also contributed for the diversion of votes for specific interest of the people. For instance, BJP is formed out of split in Janata Party.
Impact on India’s polity and economy:
- Growth of Regional Parties also lead to ‘rainbow’ coalitions, so called because like the rainbow, they last only a short time.
- The period of 1996 – 1999 had 3 general elections, which cost a lot of public money.
- Policy paralysis and delay in decision making and bills all result from coalitions happened.
- In times of emergency, coalition coordination can lead to unacceptable delays.
- Coalition government can obstruct the process of decision making and the conduct of decision implementation.
- Coalition government has turned politics of north India into one of competition for vote banks based on caste and community etc.
- On the contrary, during times of coalitions, regional parties served as a moderating force upon exclusionary national parties. Regional parties fill a vacuum for protecting minorities.
- The coalition politics has led to empowerment for regional parties from the states and has added to India’s search for true federalism. Thus, it paves the way for a kind of ‘electoral federalism’.
- Since 1996, twenty three regional parties have been sharing power at the national level. there is a strong sense of Indianness, or what is called a federal unifier.
- Rise in Fiscal Deficit: Due to increase in non-development expenditure fiscal deficit of the government increased. Due to rise in fiscal deficit there was a rise in public debt and interest. In 1991 interest liability became 36.4% of total government expenditure.
- Increase in Adverse Balance of Payments: In 1980-81 it was Rs. 2214 crore and rose in 1990- 91 to Rs. 17,367 crores. To cover this deficit large amount of foreign loans had to be obtained and the interest payment got increased.
- These subsequent events made compulsory for India to obtain for India’s New Economic Policy which was announced on July 24, 1991 known as the LPG or Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation model.
In a democracy, political parties provide an agency to the society to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government. The era of coalition has proved to be more beneficial for the Indian polity as it helped to strengthened the voice of minorities and regional parties in Indian politics. However, some of the lacunas came forward due to the policy paralysis which are needed to be addressed in the coming future if any coalition has to be formed. In return it will ensure true meaning of federal unifier for India.
10.Examine the factors that led to the emergence of modern Turkey.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write in detail about the reasons that led to the emergence of modern Turkey and its following consequences.
The Republic of Turkey was created after the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican Parliament in 1922. This new regime delivered the coup de grâce to the Ottoman state which had been practically wiped away from the world stage following the First World War.
The Ottoman Empire was since its foundation in c. 1299, ruled as an absolute monarchy. Between 1839 and 1876 the Empire went through a period of reform.
The Young Ottomans who were dissatisfied with these reforms worked together with Sultan Abdülhamid II to realize some form of constitutional arrangement in 1876. After the short-lived attempt of turning the Empire into a constitutional monarchy, Sultan Abdülhamid II turned it back into an absolute monarchy by 1878 by suspending the constitution and parliament.
- A couple decades later a new reform movement under the name of the Young Turks conspired against Sultan Abdülhamid II, who was still in charge of the Empire, by starting the Young Turk Revolution. They forced the sultan to reintroduce the constitutional rule in 1908.
- This led to a rise of active participation of the military in politics. In 1909 they deposed the sultan and in 1913 seized power in a coup. In 1914 the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers as an ally of the German Empire and subsequently lost the war.
- The goal was to win territory in the East to compensate for the loses in the West in previous years during the Italo-Turkish War and the Balkan Wars. In 1918 the leaders of the Young Turks took full responsibility for the lost war and fled the country into exile leaving the country in chaos.
- The Armistice of Mudros was signed which granted the Allies, in a broad and vaguely worded clause, the right to further occupy Anatolia “in case of disorder”. Within days French and British troops started occupying the remaining territory controlled by the Ottoman Empire.
- These occupations and the persecution of Muslims in the rest of Anatolia by primarily Greek and Armenian irregulars motivated the Turkish revolutionaries to start a resistance movement led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other army officers.
- Shortly after the Greek occupation of Western Anatolia in 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha set foot in Samsun to start the Turkish War of Independence against the occupations and persecutions of Muslims in Anatolia. He and the other army officers alongside him dominated the polity that finally established the Republic of Turkey out of what was left of the Ottoman Empire.
- Turkey was established based on the ideology found in the country’s pre-Ottoman history and was also steered towards a secular political system to diminish the influence of religious groups such as the Ulema.
The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923, with Kemal as its first president.
- The government was formed from the Ankara-based revolutionary group, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues.
- The second constitution was ratified by the Grand National Assembly on April 20, 1924.
Since the time of first world war till today Turkey shows its prominent place in International politics due to its geostrategic location. Due to this its strong presence in international politics Turkey’s cannot be sidelined on the international table as it plays a pivotal role on the deck of International relations.
11.The outbreak of the First World War gave Japan the opportunity to realise her imperialistic design in the far East. Elucidate.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write in detail about how the outbreak of the First World War gave Japan the opportunity ti realise her imperialist design in the far East.
The Outbreak of First World War was precipitated by an incident which would not have created much stir if Europe had not stood divided into two hostile armed camps, preparing for war for many years.
- Japan entered the war on the side of the Allies on 23 August 1914, seizing the opportunity of Imperial Germany’s distraction with the European War to expand its sphere of influence in China and the Pacific.
- The Japan already had a military alliance with Britain, but that did not obligate it to enter the war.
- It joined the Allies in order to make territorial gains. It acquired Germany’s scattered small holdings in the Pacific and on the China coast.
- The other Allies pushed back hard against Japan’s efforts to dominate China through the Twenty-One Demands of 1915.
- Japan’s occupation of Siberia against the Bolsheviks proved unproductive. Japan’s wartime diplomacy and limited military action had produced few results, and at the Paris Versailles peace conference, at the end of the war, Japan was largely frustrated in its ambitions.
Earlier to this Japan transformed dramatically in the latter 19th century from an almost totally closed in society to a modern industrialized, Empire-building and militarily aggressive new nation.
- It seized colonies such as Okinawa, it defeated China in a major war in 1890s, and to the astonishment of the world it defeated Russia in a full-scale war in 1904-05.
- It made aggressive demands, took full control of Korea, was expanding into Manchuria, and was demanding special privileges in the Chinese economy.
In later times In 1914 Japanese and British military forces liquidated Germany’s holdings in China. Japan occupied the German military colony in Qingdao, and occupied portions of Shandong Province.
- China was financially chaotic, highly unstable politically, and militarily very weak.
- China declared war on Germany in August 1917 as a technicality to make it eligible to attend the post war peace conference, where they hoped to find friends who would help block the threats of Japanese expansion.
- As result of first world war Japan’s participation in World War I on the side of the Allies sparked unprecedented economic growth and earned Japan new colonies in the South Pacific seized from Germany.
- After the war Japan signed the Treaty of Versailles and enjoyed good international relations through its membership in the League of Nations and participation in international disarmament conferences.
- However, it resented the sense of racial superiority among the white powers.
- The Japanese army was becoming an increasingly independent political force With its own plans on how to deal with Manchuria, China, and Russia regardless of civilian decision-makers. Which led to Japan realise her imperialist design in the far east.
In the aftermath of first world war Japan’s military leaders pushed for military expansion. They attacked Manchuria in 1931, invaded China in 1937 and attacked pearl harbour in 1941 which eventually pulled Japan in to facing the worst consequences of second world war.
12. What was the background behind the rise of Fascism in Europe post WWI? Analyse. How did it change the course of history? Comment.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write in detail about the background for the rise of Fascism in Europe after first world war. It also expects candidates to write about how the rise of Fascism in Europe impacted the course of History.
A number of political movements which arose in Europe after the First World War are generally given the name ‘fascist’ . The common features of these movements were their hostility to democracy and socialism, and the aim of establishing dictatorships. They succeeded, in many countries of Europe, such as, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Germany, Spain. Their success in Italy and Germany had the most serious consequences.
Background behind the rise of Fascism in Europe post WWI:
- The term ‘fascism’ is of Italian origin. It was first used for the movement which started in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
- Benito Mussolini coined the term “fascism” in 1919 to describe his political movement. He adopted the ancient Roman fasces as his symbol. This was a bundle of rods tied around an ax, which represented the power of Rome.
- Discontentment with the peace treaties: Italy joined the Allies in the First World War to gain territories of Turkey and Germany. But she received nothing from the Paris peace treaties. Germany suffered due to Treaty of Versailles.
- Economic Crisis: Italy suffered heavy losses in terms of life and property in the First World War. After the War, many soldiers became unemployed. Trade and commerce were ruined leading to large – scale unemployment. There was a shortage of food grains.
- Political Instability: Italy was governed by a series of coalition governments and there was no continuity in their policies. Governments were unable to deal with problems of unemployment, strikes and riots.
- Class Conflicts: The common man had been promised, during the war, that he would be rewarded greater attention to his economic needs, these promises were ignored and the common man was embittered. Thus, people wanted the control of the government to be in the hands of the common man.
- Rise of middle class– Rise of salaried middle class as the largest segment of the population, who felt unrepresented by traditional liberal parties and longed for a new way between organized big business and organized labor. Economic insecurity and cultural uneasiness with the feeling of decadence.
- Threat of Socialism or Communism: Inspired by Communism, the peasants took away the land from the landlords and workmen organized strikes and took hold of factories. The industrialists were worried about the strength of the labour unions and wanted a powerful government who could establish peace they therefore provided financial support for fascism.
- Failure of the League of Nations: The League of Nations proved to be weak and failed to check the rise of dictatorship.
- Leadership: Mussolini and Hitler had a charismatic personality. Their speeches praised the past glories of their respective nations and won the faith of their countrymen.
Fascism changed course of history in following ways:
- It plunged Europe into the grip of Dictatorships: Hitler in Germany and Franco in Spain.
- It bred an entire generation of ‘fascists’ who caused incalculable harm to any opponents of the ideology.
- • Glorification of military might shattered any hope for disarmament. Highly militarized Europe was sitting on a powder keg that erupted in 1939.
- It led the world to WW-II within 20 years of the end of WW-I which was even bigger in destruction reducing the entire continent to rubble.
- Education became highly state controlled. Only government prescribed books were taught.
- Extreme nationalism and concept of organic state promoted quest for lebensraum (living space). This in turn promoted imperialism.
- Dehumanization and scapegoating directly fed immense hatred. This set up genocides like the holocaust and other pogroms against ROMAS (GYPSIES), POLES, etc.
Victory of fascism not only led to the destruction of democracy and the suppression of socialist movement, it also led to the preparation for war which in turn culminated in to greater loss for humanity and modern values of democracy.
13.Will it be prudent and sensible to enact a population control legislation? Critically comment.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about the pros and cons of enacting a population control legislation. It also expects them to express their views regarding it too.
According to the World Population Prospects 2019 report by the United Nations, the population of India is set to overtake that of China within a decade. Accordingly, The Population Control Bill, 2019 (or, Population Regulation Bill, 2019) is a proposed bill introduced in the Rajya Sabha in July 2019. The purpose of the bill is to control the population growth of India.
Pros of enacting population control legislation:
- On the world scale it is generally said that population explosion is more dangerous than Bomb explosion.
- As the resources are limited fulfilling basic needs demand of the rising population becomes a humongous task.
- If we consider the fact with India, there is a higher proportion of people who are in the marriageable group.
- Also the advanced medical facilities all over the world have increased the life expectancy of the people.
- With respect to India global demand for water is going to increase by 50% in 2050 as compared to 2000.
- It will also lead to women empowerment as people will not prefer ‘meta son policy’ due to cap on child producing norms.
- Though China’s one child policy has been criticized on grounds of human digninty and rights, it has controlled and improved nations population by a 400 million people as per the report of the East India Forum.
- If population control wont happen, it will result in fast depletion of limited resources which in turn pose aggarvated problem of hunger and increased death rate among people
Cons of population control legislation:
- People as a resource are invaluable, hence capping the population growth through population control legislation will deprive the world of upcoming human resource.
- There are already well documented problems with China’s one child policy, namely the gender imbalance resulting from preference for boys, and millions of undocumented children that were born to parents that already had their one child.
- The population control legislation can also be anti women. As Human rights activist and women rights activist argue that it deprives the humans and women of their choice to produce child.
- A legal restriction could force couples to go for sex selective abortions. Besides being inhuman, it is bound to generate greater gender imbalance.
The preliminary census count of the population with a “census date” of March 1, 2011, was 1,210,193,422 (about 130 million less than the current population of China). The number of people added between the 2001 and 2011 censuses was slightly less than that between the 1991 and 2001 censuses. Nonetheless, 181 million people added to India’s population over the past 10 years is roughly equal to the population of Pakistan.
Voluntary approach v/s coercive measures for population control:
- Over the years, India has achieved a steady decline in its fertility rates and a slowing down of its population growth. India was one of the first country to introduce a family planning programme back in 1952 and has, ever since, witnessed a steady decline in growth rate, from 24.7 percent in 1971-1981 to 17.7 percent in 2001-2011 (Census data).
- The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)–4 revealed that 24 states in the country have already achieved replacement level fertility (of 2.1), which means that couples are increasingly choosing to have two children. India’s declining fertility can largely be attributed to key determinants like increasing emphasis on women’s education and their participation in the labour force.
- It is to be noted that like China, a coerced population control policy of one child only has not been accepted in India. It has been kept totally voluntary. For achieving the goals of family welfare programme, accredited social health activists (ASHA) have been appointed.
The Economic Survey of 2018 points out that ‘son meta preference’ – the desire to have a male child – has resulted in 21 million “unwanted girls” in India. “Imposing a two child norm will add to the burden on women, by way of sex selective practices and forced sterilisations. This could result in a setback to population stabilisation efforts, as it happened during the emergency period in mid-1970s. Hence, the policy makers need to strike a right balance if they want to rightly address the issue of population rise through population control legislation.
14. How is the concept of ‘consent’ transforming the relationship between men and women? Analyse in the light of India’s social context.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about the transformation of the relationship between men and women due to the concept of consent in the Indian social context. It expects candidates to look at good and bad of the issue and present a fair view.
Recently the Delhi High Court declined a plea seeking direction to the Centre to frame guidelines for registration of FIR for marital rape and laws to make it a ground for divorce. It said the issue of marital rape has to be dealt by the legislature and not the judiciary.
Marital rape is any unwanted Sexual Acts by a Spouse or Ex-Spouse, committed without consent and/or against a person’s will, obtained by force, or threat of force, intimidation, or when a person is unable to consent. It’s in this context the issue of ‘consent’ comes in where whether it is husband or partner has any right to go against the will of the spouse.
Concept of Consent transforming the relationship between men and women:
- Our legal system doesn’t provide any concrete protection to the victims of marital rape. Under Hindu marriage act, 1955 one of the “conjugal duties” of the wife is to provide sexual satisfaction to her husband, a very archaic thought congruent to the thoughts of a patriarchal society.
- Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code(IPC) considers forced sex in marriages as a crime only when the wife is below 15 or the couple is legally separated. Thus, marital rape is not a criminal offense under the IPC.
- But when the concept of Consent aroused in the Indian society, it has started to change the societal patriarchal strata of the Indian society.
- The sudden response for the #metoo movement from the Indian society shows this transformation. As men were getting more aware about the rights of women to say no too.
- It also led to recognition of equal rights to women where Fundamental right of women under Article 14 which grants equal protection to women started to be recognised in the society.
- The relationship between men and women is now getting to be equal in terms as compared to the age old tradition where women were seen as inferior to men.
- It also led to equal value for say of women in the family and society.
- By depriving married women of an effective penal remedy against forced sexual intercourse, it violates their right to privacy and bodily integrity, aspects of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21, by differentiating them from unmarried women.
- However, the concept of consent made aware women about the their right to privacy and it equally made aware men about women’s right to privacy.
- As the concept of consent is not limited to India, Many countries have made it a crime for a husband to force his wife to have sex in recent years. Malaysia changed its laws to that effect in 2007; Turkey in 2005; and Bolivia in 2013.
- The United States began criminalizing marital rape in 1970s and most European countries in the 1990s. The United Nations has also recommended India to criminalize marital rape. Though we try to emulate US in many areas to prove ourselves as progressive, doesn’t this law provide the opportunity for the same
In this way the concept of consent has started transforming the Indian society in various ways. Even the Law Commission’s report (2000) and Justice Verma panel’s (2013) recommended to do away with the exemption granted to marital rape in the laws. Hence, though the process of equal rights for women is supplemented by the concept of consent, there are still miles to go to achieve the true meaning of equality for women.
15.What are the latest achievements of the present Government in addressing the challenge of regionalism in the North-East? Discuss.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write in detail about the latest achievements of the present government in addressing the challenges of regionalism in the Northeast.
Regionalism is the expression of a common sense of identity and purpose by people within a specific geographical region, united by its unique language, culture, language, etc.
In a positive sense, it encourages people to develop a sense of brotherhood and oneness which seeks to protect the interests of a particular region and promotes the welfare and development of the state and its people. Whereas In the negative sense, it implies excessive attachment to one’s region which is a great threat to the unity and integrity of the country.
- The partition of India turned the North-East region into a land locked region and affected it economically. Due to this isolation from the mainstream India, the region remained backward in terms of developmental parameters.
- The isolation of the region, its complex social character due to different ethnic tribes & their culture, lack of development, weak communications between the north-east region & rest of India fuelled the anger and soured the relationship between centre and this region, which led to varied demands of people inhabiting in this region.
- Due to this delicate relationship, people aspired for their autonomy, secessionist movements & strict opposition to outsider from entering into their region.
- In 1972, a regional body, North-Eastern Council was set up to provide a forum for inter-state coordination regional planning & integrated development of the region to avoid intra-regional disparities. However, NEC couldn’t control their feelings for autonomy and violent secessionist movements for that cause.
- The migration of people from other part of the region of North-east region for its rich resources created lots of problem and increased the tension between ‘locals’ and ‘outsiders’. The migrant people were seen as encroachers, who would snatch away their scarce resources like land, employment opportunities & political power and render the local population without their legitimate due.
Hence, following major steps have been taken by the government to address the challenge of regionalism in India:
- There were three main themes in the election promises by the present government. First, development, which was to be achieved by improving infrastructure and physical connectivity.
- Second, identity: drive out the undocumented migrants so resented in the region.
- Third, security: protect North Eastern students from attack in other parts of the country and deal with the various militancies born of competing ethnic nationalisms in the region.
- Special emphasis is laid on enhancing the connectivity within the region and to the rest of the country. The Centre earmarked Rs 13,500 crore for rail connectivity in the 2017 budget.
- The North East Road Sector Development Scheme was launched in 2015-’16. Projects under the scheme are in “different stages of implementation”.
- On February 10, 2019, Prime Minister inaugurated a section of the Agartala-Sabroom rail line, connecting the state capital of Tripura to the last border town.
- Both Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh got new airports. Two major bridges were inaugurated in order to increase connectivity between Assam and Arunachal Pradesh and to ease troop movement to the border: the Dhola Sadiya bridge across the Lohit, the longest bridge in India, and the Bogibeel Bridge across the Brahmaputra, the longest rail road bridge in the country.
- The effort to update Assam’s National Register of Citizens, a Supreme Court-monitored exercise being conducted for the first time since 1951, is nearing completion.
- This exercise was done to address the issue of infiltration and illegal immigrants in the North East region on a priority basis.
- The Lok Sabha also passed the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, which proposed to grant citizenship to Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Christians from Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Pakistan, provided they have live in India for six years, even if they do not have the required documents. But it could not be passed in the Rajya Sabha and lapsed in February 2019.
- To step up the border security along the India Bangladesh and India Myanmar border, efforts are expedited to complete the fencing along these two borders. As it will address the issue of illegal migrants and Armed conflicts.
- To ensure safety and security of safety of North-Eastern students studying across the country steps have been taken up including setting up hostels for North-Eastern students at various educational centres. Which will ensure the complete integration of identities of North-eastern students in India in turn addressing the problem of regionalism.
However some of the issues to address the problem of regionalism still persists:
- Address the issue of infiltration and illegal immigrants in the North East region on a priority basis. This will include clear policy directions and effective control at the ground level.
- The citizenship amendment bill is aimed at distinguishing Indian citizens living in Assam from undocumented migrants. Over 40 lakh applicants were left out of the final draft. Despite claims that those declared foreigners will be deported to Bangladesh, India has no repatriation treaty with that country.
Its due to the negative effect of partition the North eastern region of India was sidelined while ensuring the growth and development other states in India. However, recent steps by government have the potential to address the problem of regionalism to a larger extent. As North-eastern region of India is widely diverse it needs to be mainstreamed by addressing the problem of regionalism so that the vision of development for all can be achieved.
16.Explain the concept of ‘city’ as a space for demonstrating constructive dissent. Do you think people get overboard while showing dissent and thereby disrupt city life? Critically comment.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about how the concept of city is now derived as a space for demonstrating constructive dissent. It also expects to express views on whether people get overboard while showing dissent and thereby disrupt city life.
“Global Protest Wave” is the term used by media outlets to refer to the surge in high-profile protests in different parts of the world since 2019. Protests are public phenomena which intend to negotiate the current social order or political power. Throughout the history of cities, protests have been used as instruments for sweeping changes.
City as a space for demonstrating constructive dissent:
- The motivations behind these protests are diverse. In recent years, these mobilisations have called for the removal of people in power, the scrapping of controversial bills, and justice for those who have been oppressed and killed.
- For instance, Shahin bagh protest in Delhi, Protest in USA agianst death of George floyed in Custody.
- More often than not, when we think about protests, we focus on the participants — the people and the state. Yet it is equally important to look at the sites where these demonstrations are occurring: ‘city’.
- While this detail is usually overlooked, the built environment has a profound impact on the flow of demonstrations. It is no exaggeration to assert that the choice of the public space where a civil protest will be staged is a vital factor in its success or failure.
- However, this inherent link between urban space and dissent is double-edged. The wise choice of space can sway the fate of a demonstration towards success. Conversely, the deliberate choice to distort or destroy these spaces can also decimate the potency of dissent.
- The accessible physical spaces. It is almost a given that some form of accessible space is necessary to stage a demonstration. Typically, these so-called accessible areas come in the form of public parks and city squares where people can easily assemble. For instance, protests in Spain against Nationwide lockdown due to COVID-19.
- However, in modern times, there is a proliferation of what is known as private-public spaces. These are privately-owned spaces which people can freely use — for the most part. Since they are owned by an individual or an entity, restrictions on what can and cannot be done while people are in these spaces can be imposed.
- Chants of “Whose street? Our Street.” filled the Paternoster Square where London Stock Exchange is situated during the 2011 Occupy Protests. However, the Square is owned by Mitsubishi Estate. With this, protesters were prohibited from gaining access, with the police closing in the protestors.
- The physical space is where leaders can display their power. This is why there is a tendency for them to address huge crowds even though we are now in the age of social media. With this, the physical space can also serve as a site to dismantle that power if it runs off course.
- In order to foil the pro-democracy protests in Bahrain, the Bahraini government demolished the Pearl roundabout, the centre of the uprising at the time. The destruction of this space is a way to regain control.
Over boarding of people while showing dissent and disruption of public life:
- The use of city’s public places for demonstration disrupts the public life in some way or another.
- For instance, During the protest at Shahin bagh in Delhi, Delhi bus public transport was completely disrupted and resulting in the delay of at least 3 hours for the public to reach schools and colleges.
- The college campuses in Hong-kong region had to shut their operations due to intrusion of Police inside campus to pacify the protesters.
- The Tiananmen Square is a tragic example of how the public space can be used to eliminate dissent. The 44-hectare public square was deliberately cleared so that it exudes a feeling of massive emptiness. This dwarfs the individual, overwhelming them with the symbolic power of the state reflected by the space.
- Though the use of city as a public space disrupts the city life, it also ensure true demands put forward for the sake of good of all.
However, the need has arisen to develop the city as public space where people can come forward and show their dissent against varied issues. As these kind of demonstrations help us to realise the true meaning of democracy and also help the weak and marginalised section of society to show dissent.
17.Would you agree with the assertion that the issues of CAA, NRC and NPR have further communalised the society? Substantiate your views.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to express their views about whether the issues of CAA, NRC and NPR have further communalised the society with relative examples.
Communalism, in a broad sense means a strong attachment to one’s own community. In popular discourse in India, it is understood as unhealthy attachment to one’s own religion. It’s an ideology that, in order to unify the community, suppresses distinctions within the community and emphasizes the essential unity of the community against other communities.
Communalism as a political philosophy has its roots in the religious and cultural diversity of India. It has been used as a political propaganda tool to create divide, differences and tensions between the communities on the basis of religious and ethnic identity leading to communal hatred and violence.
- Recently, the Parliament passed the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill 2019 which received the President’s assent to become an Act.
- National Population Register is a list of “usual residents of the country”. A “usual resident of the country” is one who has been residing in a local area for at least the last six months, or intends to stay in a particular location for the next six months.
- National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein.
- NRC’s purpose was to Purpose to separate “illegal” immigrants from “legitimate” residents of Assam.
- However, recent strikes and protests across the country against the NPR,NRC and CAA have aroused debate that these steps have communalised Indian society.
Communalisation of Society due to CAA,NRC,NPR:
- For the citizenship amendment act, Critics argue that it is violative of Article 14 of the Constitution (which guarantees the right to equality and applicable to both the citizens and foreigners) and the principle of secularism enshrined in the preamble of the constitution.
- India has several other refugees that include Tamils from Sri Lanka and Hindu Rohingya from Myanmar. They are not covered under the Act.
- Whereas with respect to NRC, an updated NRC is likely to put an end to speculations about the actual number of illegal migrants in Assam in particular and the country in general.
- Flawed Process – People who found themselves on the first list that was released on January 1, 2018, didn’t find their names in the second. Even the family of a former President of India did not mention on the list.
- Hence, it becomes less likely to trust this exercise as a fair process.
- There is no clarity on the mechanism for protection of the vast amount of data that will be collected through NPR.
- Unlike the NRC, the NPR is not a citizenship enumeration drive, as it would record even a foreigner staying in a locality for more than six months.
- Hence, the exercise of NPR contradicts the NRC and CAA. Hence, it provides a scope for communalisation in the Indian society.
However, government has put forward their stand as follows as in the following way it doesn’t communalises society:
- The government has clarified that Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh are Islamic republic’s where Muslims are in majority hence they cannot be treated as persecuted minorities.
- According to the government, this Bill aims at granting rather than taking away someone’s citizenship. Hence, it doesn’t amount to communalisation of society.
- Publication of an updated NRC is expected to deter future migrants from Bangladesh from entering Assam illegally.
- The publication of the draft NRC has already created a perception that staying in Assam without valid documentation will attract detention/jail term and deportation.
- Hence, it has addressed the problem of illegal migration in the regions of Assam.
- NPR would streamline data of residents across various platforms. For instance, it is common to find a different date of birth of a person on different government documents. NPR will help eliminate that.
In a diverse society like India, it becomes highly difficult to address the problems of each and every section of society. However the process of “Dialogue-Debate-Discussion” are the true way forward to address the challenge of communalism in India which will ensure peaceful existence of all faiths in the society.
18. What role does caste play in the economic deprivation of the poor? Has there been any development on this front? Discuss.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about the role of caste played in the economic deprivation of poor. It also expects to write about the development on this fron to address the issue of economic deprivation of the poor due to caste.
Over the past couple of years, one Indian state after another has been on the boil because of caste-based agitations. The latest state to be engulfed in caste conflict is Maharashtra, where a stir by the dominant caste of Marathas seems to have led other backward classes (OBCs) and Dalits (Scheduled Castes or SCs) to oppose Maratha demands in unison.
A quarter century after the recommendations of the Mandal Commission (which led to reservations for OBCs) and more than half a century after the Indian Constitution mandated reservations for SCs and Scheduled Tribes (STs or Adivasis), caste inequality and caste-based reservations continue to remain contentious issues in the Indian polity.
- Traditionally the occupations have been caste based where the brahmins(upper most) caste were assigned priestly roles,Kshatriyas(warriors),Vaishyas(traders) and all the menial tasks viz-hidind of animal skin,cleaning,el al were assigned to the shudras.
- This segregation of occupations has ensured that the lower caste primarily shudras remain financially debilitated so as to hinder their upward mobility,although with increase in caste neutral occupations(army,navy,etc.and reservation system in India,the caste based occupations are diminishing gradually.
- Being financially weak the lower castes don’t have enough resouces to provide quality education,nutrition and other basic needs which leads to stunted cognitive as well as physical development.This ensures that the poor remains poor.
- While the STs and SCs still lag behind other castes on most socio-economic criteria, the OBCs are almost at par with other social groups on several parameters.
- For instance, the OBCs are almost at par with so called upper castes in terms of composition of rural incomes and are investing much more than the latter in agriculture.
- SCs on the other hand are mired in deep distress and lag behind in ownership of productive resources in farming.
- On another key metric: the ownership of firms and enterprises, the OBCs score far higher than the SCs and STs, the latest economic census shows.
- The economic census, which was conducted in 2013 and covered 58.5 million economic enterprises, provides data on social-group wise ownership of proprietary establishments.
- OBCs have an almost proportionate ownership with so called upper caste, while SCs have the lowest relative share among all social groups.
- The ownership of SCs/STs and OBCs in non-agricultural establishments is lower than overall figures, suggesting that India’s socially deprived groups typically face greater barriers in the non-farm sector of the economy.
- While a big reason for such economic inequality could be lack of access to capital, research suggests that social discrimination might also be hindering the entry of Dalits in certain businesses.
- The employment-category wise break up of social groups provided by the 2011-12 NSSO also point to the stark inequality in socio-economic status between SCs (and STs) and other castes.
- The data show that Dalits are the least likely to start their own enterprises and most likely to work as labourers for others, with SCs having the lowest relative share in self-employed category and the highest share in casual labourer category. The OBCs have a roughly proportionate share in each employment category.
- Hence, lack of land ownership, lack of capital in terms of money, less equitable access to the education and ownership of businesses proves to be the main reasons behind economic deprivation of poor due to the caste inequalities.
Recent developments to address the issue of economic deprivation due to caste inequalities:
- The age-old caste system of India is responsible for the origination of the reservation system in the country. In simple terms, it is about facilitating access to seats in the government jobs, educational institutions, and even legislatures to certain sections of the population.
- After independence, initially reservations were provided for SCs and STs. Also land reforms were introduced.
- Increased agricultural growth and productivity and thus enhanced farmers’ income due to land reforms is directly related to rural poverty reduction.
- Increased access to land for the poor landless masses by the redistribution of land ensures them an income guarantee.
- Since the Mandal Commission recommendations, the government had made 27.5 per cent reservation mandatory in government jobs for OBCs, eralier to this 15 per cent for SCs and 7.5 per cent for STs.
- National Commission for SC’s and ST’s have been established with objective to To investigate & Monitor matters relating to Safeguards provided for SC/STs under the Constitution or under other laws or under Govt. Order, to evaluate the working of such Safeguards.
- The efforts of the NCSC and NCST have been reflected in following ways: The literacy gap has closed significantly in the last decade. SC/ST women made the most rapid progress as per the 2011 census. Literacy rate among SC/ST men ad women increased by around 9% and 14 % respectively compared to 10% and 5% among non-SC/ST community.
- Representation of SC and ST members in central government and state government services is more than the prescribed percentage and has significantly increased in the last 2 decades as per a reply given by central government minister during question hour.
- The SC/ST population with houses and other basic amenities have increased by around 30% as per the TISS report.
- Health indicators including IMR, MMR etc., have improved and seen a reduction of more than 5% as per the report by Registrar General of India, Sample Registration System.
- Recently, Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana Survey has been conducted by the Labour Bureau under the Ministry of Labour and Employment. The survey studied as many as 97,000 beneficiaries and was conducted between April-November 2018.
- Just one out of five beneficiaries i.e. 20.6% from the sample survey availed Mudra loan for setting up a new establishment, the rest used the funds for expanding their existing business.
These kind of progressive steps have been taken up by the successive governments to eradicate the problems faced by the poor due to the caste. However, still the social evil of caste based discrimination exists in the society, which if addressed through the behavioural change in the society will yield better result for the growth and development of all in the Indian society.
19.While discussing their significance, examine the distribution of precious and strategic minerals in the Indian subcontinent.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write the significance of precious and strategic minerals in the Indian subcontinent. It also expects to probe deeper in to the distribution of precious an strategic minerals in India.
The minerals that are important in various industrial processes are regarded as precious and strategic minerals. Some examples of precious and strategic minerals are tin, silver, cobalt, manganese, tungsten, zinc, titanium, platinum, chromium, bauxite, and diamonds.
Significance of precious and strategic minerals:
- Strategic minerals are largely characterized by their essentiality and a country’s accessibility to the said mineral. It plays a key role in manufacturing, defence equipment, agricultural production, energy industry, medicines, electronics etc., and hence its continuous supply must be maintained.
- In essence, they are the essential minerals which have the potential to determine the survival of a nation during war like-time.
- Hence, they are also viewed from the purview of national security, and nations like the USA, EU and Japan maintain a stockpile of some of such minerals.
- Cobalt, chromium, manganese and platinum, are amongst the classic strategic minerals for a host of military, medical, scientific and commercial uses.
- They are helpful for the introduction of new high end technology vehicles. e.g. India’s move to acquire reserves of strategic minerals like lithium and cobalt to power the country’s move into electric vehicles.
- Reserves of lithium and cobalt, are used to manufacture batteries for electric vehicles, smartphones and laptops, in addition to other precious minerals like tungsten, nickel and rare earths.
- Various materials used in defence industry are obviously viewed as strategic materials.
Distribution of precious and strategic minerals in the Indian subcontinent:
- India is acknowledged as a nation well-endowed in natural mineral resources.
- It ranks 4th amongst the mineral producer countries, behind China, United States and Russia, on the basis of volume of production, as per the Report on Mineral Production by International Organizing Committee for the World Mining Congress. Following figure 1 shows the distribution of Mineral resources across the country.
- Various mineral deposits are found in India. The country produces around 87 to 89 minerals, including 4 fuel minerals, 10 metallic minerals, 49 non-metallic minerals, 3 atomic minerals and 22 minor minerals (including building and other materials).
- India’s domestic mining sector contributes about 10% -11% to the industrial sector and about 2.2% – 2.5% to the economy’s GDP.
- The major portion of mining in India, almost 80% is that of coal and the rest 20% constitutes of very many metals and raw materials such as gold, copper, iron, lead, bauxite, zinc and uranium.
- India has a well-oiled network which undertake various tasks associated with mining. India tops the world in respect to mica and mica splitting. The country ranks third in the production of coal, barytes and chromite. India stands 4th in iron ore production and 6th in bauxite and manganese.
- At present, however, Indian policy makers are keen to identify the strategicminerals exclusively. An effort in that direction is visible in a report published by the Planning Commission in 2011. This report specifically identifies strategic minerals and metals. They include Tin, Cobalt, Lithium, Germanium, Gallium, Indium, Niobium, Beryllium, Tantalum, Tungsten, Bismuth and Selenium and Rare Earths.
The availability of precious and strategic minerals adds to richness and strength of the Country. On comparative scale even though the Indian subcontinent is endowed less with respect to quantity of precious and strategic mineral, technological advancements can prove to be the best useful tool to advance the availability of the strategic and precious minerals.
20. What is the source of salinity in the oceans? Explain. Also, discuss the concept of salt budget.
Demand of the question:
It expects candidates to write about the source of salinity in the ocean. It also expects to discuss the concept of salt budget in detail.
Salinity means the total content of dissolved salts in Sea or Ocean. Salinity is calculated as the amount of salt dissolved in 1,000 gm of seawater. It is generally expressed as ‘parts per thousand’ (ppt). A salinity of 24.7 % has been regarded as the upper limit to fix ‘brackish water’.It is a significant factor in deciding several characteristics of the chemistry of natural waters and biological processes.
Salt in the ocean comes from two sources: runoff from the land and openings in the seafloor.
- Rocks on land are the major source of salts dissolved in seawater. Rainwater that falls on land is slightly acidic, so it erodes rocks.
- This releases ions that are carried away to streams and rivers that eventually feed into the ocean. Many of the dissolved ions are used by organisms in the ocean and are removed from the water.
- Others are not removed, so their concentrations increase over time.
- Another source of salts in the ocean is hydrothermal fluids, which come from vents in the seafloor. Ocean water seeps into cracks in the seafloor and is heated by magma from the Earth’s core.
- The heat causes a series of chemical reactions. The water tends to lose oxygen, magnesium, and sulfates, and pick up metals such as iron, zinc, and copper from surrounding rocks.
- The heated water is released through vents in the seafloor, carrying the metals with it. Some ocean salts come from underwater volcanic eruptions, which directly release minerals into the ocean.
- Two of the most prevalent ions in seawater are chloride and sodium. Together, they make up around 85 percent of all dissolved ions in the ocean.
- Magnesium and sulfate make up another 10 percent of the total. Other ions are found in very small concentrations.
- The concentration of salt in seawater (salinity) varies with temperature, evaporation, and precipitation.
- Salinity is generally low at the equator and at the poles, and high at mid-latitudes. The average salinity is about 35 parts per thousand. Stated in another way, about 3.5 percent of the weight of seawater comes from the dissolved salts.
Concept of salt budget:
It is also known as the salt cycle. It involves all the processes through which salt moves from the ocean into the lithosphere, to a certain extent into the atmosphere, and back into the oceans.
- Moving water, including groundwater, leaches minerals from the rocks through the process of surface erosion. The mineral-laced water joins the rivers and streams which finally reach the oceans. These minerals add to the salinity levels of the ocean waters.
- Some of the salts in the ocean waters accumulate at the ocean bottom through the process of sedimentation turning into mineralized rocks. Over a period of millions of years, some of these rocks get raised above the ocean surface due to plate tectonics, or due to volcanic activity. This brings the salt back to the lithosphere in the form of minerals (rocks).
- Salt from the oceans also gets sprayed into the atmosphere due to the action of wind. This salt returns to the lithosphere mixed with precipitation. However, this constitutes a tiny fraction of salt moving from the land to the sea and vice versa.
- Salt cycle operates over a very long period of time.
- Every year, around 3 billion tons of salt gets added to the oceans from the land. A tiny fraction of this salt is extracted by humans for daily consumption.
Oceanic salinity is affected by factors such as temperature, ingress of fresh water and mixing of currents. Oceanic salinity plays important role in the growth of marine organisms, circulation of oceanic currents and distribution of temperature and rainfall across the globe. Thus, it’s suffice to say oceanic salinity plays a crucial role in the survival of both marine and terrestrial life forms on Earth.