Takeaways from BRICS Summit
TOPIC: General Studies 2
- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving Indiaand/or affecting India’s interests
- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
Hosted by: Russia
Theme: Global Stability, Shared Security and Innovative Growth
- During the 12th summit, held in the backdrop of the 75th anniversary of the UN and in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, leaders will be discussing intra-BRICS cooperation and key issues in the global context, including the reform of the multilateral system
- Discuss measures to mitigate the impact of the ongoing pandemic, cooperation in counter terrorism, trade, health, energy and people to people exchanges.
The purpose of the Russian BRICS chairmanship in 2020, as it is for multifaceted cooperation between the BRICS countries, is to contribute to raising living standards and quality of life of our people
BRICS counter-terrorism strategy
The member countries calls upon all nations to take appropriate measures to prevent the use of their territories for terrorist bases or the perpetration or organization of terrorist acts intended to be committed against other States or their citizens.
It also stressed on the need for all States to refrain from organizing, instigating, facilitating, participating in, financing, encouraging or tolerating terrorist activities and to take appropriate practical measures to ensure that their territories are not used for terrorist bases or preparation or organization of terrorist acts intended to be committed against other States or their citizens.
The BRICS declaration countries also underlined the cross-border movement of terrorists. BRICS countries recognize that acts, methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations are activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of States, and that the international community should take the necessary steps to enhance cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism, including cross-border movement of terrorists.
- While Russia was the key drafting country as the host and chair of BRICS this year, China also signed off on the declaration which talked about “respect for territorial integrity” of Syria, Libya, Iraq and in the context of the UN.
- However, there was no mention of the over six-month border stand-off between India and China.
PM Modi at BRICS
- ‘Self-reliant India’ Campaign: The campaign is based on the belief that a self-reliant and resilient India post-Covid can be a force multiplier for the global economy and make a strong contribution to the global value chains. India was able to send essential medicines to more than 150 countries due to the capability of the Indian pharma industry. Our vaccine production and delivery capacity will also work in the interest of humanity like this.
- On BRICS economies: BRICS economies will play a crucial role in the global recovery after the pandemic. We have more than 42 per cent of the world’s population, and our countries are among the main engines of the global economy. There is a lot of scope for increasing mutual trade between BRICS countries. Our mutual institutions and systems—such as BRICS Inter-Bank Cooperation Mechanism, New Development Bank, Contingent Reserve Arrangement and Customs Cooperation—can also make our contribution effective in the global recovery.
- Terrorism: It is the “biggest problem” facing the world and asserted that there was a need to tackle the menace in an organised manner. We have to ensure that the countries that support and assist the terrorists are also held guilty.
- Reform of UNSC: Underlined the need to reform of the United Nations Security Council as well as multilateral bodies like the World Trade Organisation and the International Monetary Fund.
China at BRICS
Offered to cooperate with India and other BRICS nations in the development of vaccines against the coronavirus:
- Chinese companies are working with their Russian and Brazilian partners on phase three clinical trials for vaccines.
- To support the development of BRICS Vaccine R&D centre, China has designated its own national centre. China proposed a BRICS symposium on traditional medicine to explore its role in coronavirus prevention and treatment
- China will open the BRICS partnership on a new industrial revolution innovation centre in the Chinese city of Xiamen.
About BRICS (Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa)
On November 30, 2001, Jim O’Neill, a British economist who was then chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, coined the term ‘BRIC’ to describe the four emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
- Established in 2009, BRICS represents the collective voice of the Global South with Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa as its members.
- After its establishment more than a decade ago, BRICS became the first-ever compact non-Western, inter-continental multilateral club.
- It was lauded as a unique experiment to bring together politically, economically and culturally diverse countries who share a range of concerns and interests with regard to the functioning of the western liberal international order.
- BRICS has been driven by the idea to challenge, if not dismantle, western hegemony and bring new ideas on the table for global governance.
- The BRICS is mainly portrayed as a grouping of fast-emerging economies with huge market potential.
- Bilateral relations among BRICS nations are conducted on the basis of non-interference, equality, and mutual benefit.
- There are two components that make up the financial architecture of BRICS:
- New Development Bank (NDB) (BRICS Development Bank)
- Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA).
A. BRICS 5G Innovation Base
- BRICS 5G innovation base has been proposed by China.
- Objective: To take forward 5G and Artificial Intelligence (AI) cooperation BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
- Due to ongoing tensions between India and China, India is reluctant to join the programme while other countries are willing to allow China’s participation in their 5G networks.
- India has made clear that a return to normalcy cannot be possible while tensions along the Line of Actual Control remain unresolved.
- India has also recently joined the ‘Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI)’ as a founding member.
- Russia has agreed to work with China on 5G.
- In South Africa, Huawei is providing services to provide 5G networks.
- Brazil has allowed participation of Huawei in 5G trials.
B. Counter-Terrorism Strategy by BRICS
The five-nation grouping BRICS has adopted a new counter-terrorism strategy to effectively deal with terrorism.
- To complement and strengthen the existing bilateral and multilateral ties among the BRICS countries;
- To make a meaningful contribution to the global efforts of preventing and combating the threat of terrorism.
The BRICS countries reaffirmed that terrorism in all its forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and that any act of terrorism committed is a crime and has no justification. They also recognized that the international community should take the necessary steps to enhance cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism, including cross-border movement of terrorists.
Connecting the Dots:
- BRICS represent the aspirations of developing countries. Comment.
- Do a comparative analysis of the genesis and objectives of BRICS, RIC and IBSA.