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SYNOPSIS [12th March,2021] Day 53: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. What sort of challenges will a civil servant face if he/she lacks emotional intelligence? Illustrate.
Question is asking you to illustrate, such an answer should generally involve the use of many examples, such as tables, figures, graphs, or concrete research statistics and evidence.
“Anybody can become angry, that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, and for the right purpose, and in the right way, that is not within everybody’s power, that is not easy.” —Aristotle. Emotional intelligence is the ability to sense, understand, and effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions as a source of human energy, information, connection, and influence. It is valuable in a multicultural society and has five main elements that are Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy and Social skills.
CHALLENGES WILL A CIVIL SERVANT FACE IF HE/SHE LACKS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
The most effective civil servants tend to exhibit a high degree of emotional intelligence as it is the single best predictor of performance in the workplace and the strongest driver of leadership and personal excellence. With the lack of emotional intelligence, the civil servants will face the following issues:
- A civil servant with weak EI will not be having a stable mind due to which he won’t have a balanced family and work life and hence won’t be able to contribute much to the system.
- A civil servant with weak emotional intelligence cannot reconcile the differences among co-workers or different factions of people and hence can’t resolve problems in an effective manner.
- A civil servant with weak emotional intelligence will not try new things nor will he be able to take risks and will face new challenges with fear. Hence, he won’t be able to find an innovative solution to different problems.
- A civil servant with weak emotional intelligence will negatively influence the working attitude of each employee and hence bring negative energy to the system.
- A civil servant with weak emotional intelligence will not be able to communicate policies in the best possible manner and hence he won’t be flexible, empathetic and clear in expression.
- A civil servant with weak emotional intelligence will be unfair and partial during conflict of interests as he won’t be aware of anyone’s wants and hence his decision-making power will be affected as well.
- A civil servant with weak emotional intelligence will lack the focus to listen attentively to the problems of people and can’t empathize properly with their situation and hence he won’t be that trustworthy in the eyes of citizens.
Civil servants with emotional intelligence have understanding about their duty, responsibility and commitment. Present day dynamic civil services require officers to have soft skills including leadership, empathy and innovation. Effective governance can be made possible only by ‘pro-people, pro-active bureaucracy’. Even those civil servants with weak emotional intelligence can develop it through experiential learning, training, support and learning transfer. As Daniel Goleman rightly said “what really matters for success, character, happiness and lifelong achievements is a definite set of emotional skills – your EI— not just purely cognitive abilities that are measured by conventional EI tests.”
2. Does emotional intelligence play a role in the design and delivery of various welfare schemes? Examine.
The students have to simply write how emotional intelligence is critical for an administrator to maintain honesty while implementing various welfare schemes. The student is expected to write the role of emotional intelligence in administration and how it effectively maneouvers the administrator to stay upright and conscious of his duties.
Emotional Intelligence is the ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to regulate emotions towards personal growth. An emotionally intelligent administrator would understand the demand of the public, take stock of the people in distress or need and act effectively to resolve some of their issues while having a level-headed attitude throughout. With the kind of complexity involved in the service delivery due to exclusion and inclusion or the advent of technology, the civil servant is mandated to approach every situation with proper assessmen and due diligence, therefore being emotionally intelligent is one of the important traits for him to have to advance and grow for the service of the nation.
The standards underpinning the new social work degree include requirements for practitioners to ‘to develop and maintain effective working relationships; reflect on your own background experiences and practice that may have an impact on the relationship. Goleman’s definition of Emotional Intelligence is the widest ranging, and most performance orientated, encompassing abilities beyond the specific processing of emotions including:
- emotional resilience
- intuitive decisions
In delivering the service to the general public, the ability of being emotionally intelligence attains prominent position for:
- Understanding the need of the public- From policy-making to target delivery the role of the administrator is paramount to look at the larger picture with utmost unbiasness and no prejudices. Even then, he has to frame a policy with utmost care to make in inclusive as well as effective for the general public. For instance, the government came up with PM-KISAN just when the growth of agriculture sector was low and there existed rural distress.
- Effective Decision Making- While delivering or implementing the welfare schemes there is resistance among a group of people or even political pressures, but how he effectively manages to curb all that stress to finally overcome and deliver success needs emotional intelligence.
- Selection on the basis of Eligibility: Targeting the right people is the utmost priority for a civil servant. Therefore being emotionally headstrong is fundamental to this idea as emotionally weak may succumb to pressure and therefore compromise his position.
- Managing his team: An emotionally intelligent administrator would be very effective in managing his team, understanding their demand, listening to their issues and comforting them in terms of need while remaining objective for overall performance in the service delivery. For instance, Abhishek Pallava IPS Officer in Naxal hit area has a very strong team with him which has achieved tremendous success in the respective region. Even the officials of his department reach out to him when in need to effectively come out of their problems. This overall, improves their functioning in service delivery in the area.
- Strong Motivation- With good emotional intelligence, the administrator can bring changes in the behaviour, persuade public to adhere to certain rules and regulations for smooth delivery of the any service in the area. For instance, with good emotionall intelligence, the administrator can motivate people to use toilets more-often within their homes rather than defecating in the open, this would improve the health and cleanliness of the whole region.
- Positive affect is associated with a range of mental capacities that have a direct impact on judgement and decision making. These include: expanded and creative thinking; ability to link between different sources and types of information or ideas; better elaboration about information; greater flexibility in negotiation situations; improved diagnostic/assessment ability.
Understanding and handling one’s own and others’ emotions is a critical aspect at every stage of the service delivery task: engagement, assessment, observation, decision making, planning and intervention. It is also an essential skill for administrator who need to ‘develop and maintain a practice which is self aware and critically reflective. Emotional intelligence or competence is also pivotal to gaining the co-operation of other colleagues and services on which civil servants depend to achieve their outcomes, and to surviving and thriving in a very tough occupation. It seems ironical in a profession so steeped in relationship-based theories that such arguments need to be re-stated. But the place of relationships and emotion in civil service is in danger of becoming increasingly marginalized. If it takes the concept of Emotionally Intelligent, despite its limitations, to refresh and re-engage with emotion as a central concern in the service delivery field, then this can only be beneficial.
3. What do you understand by emotional self-awareness? Why is it important? Explain.
A straightforward question where in the candidate needs to showcase his/her understanding of emotional self-awareness in the first part and also explain its importance in the second part of the answer.
Emotional Self-Awareness is the capacity to tune into our own feelings, sense inner signals, and recognize how our feelings affect us and our performance. It is an important skill for leadership at any level, as well as many aspects of life.
- Emotional Intelligence (EI) are the emotional capabilities, studied and described by Daniel Goleman as the capacity we all have to lead our relationships and ourselves. EI consists of four essential capabilities: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and social skills.
- Self-awareness is the art of going deep inside of yourself to get to know your own desires and motivations. It is composed of emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment and self-confidence.
- The purpose of developing Emotional Self-Awareness is that it allows us to understand how our bodily sensations and our emotions impact ourselves, others, and our environment. Without Emotional Self-Awareness, it is difficult to become proficient in and consistently use the other Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies.
Emotional Self-Awareness, which is the least visible of the Emotional Intelligence competencies, has a surprising role as the foundation for the others, research has revealed. In this regard, its importance can be gauged from the following points –
- People strong in Emotional Self-Awareness typically demonstrate 10 or more of the 12 competencies. This, in turn, lets them make frequent use of positive leadership styles, which results in the best working climates for their teams.
- On the other hand, those low in Emotional Self-Awareness tend to show strengths in only one or so of the competencies—and their leadership and team climate suffer accordingly.
- Emotional Self-Awareness isn’t something that you achieve once and then you’re done with it. Rather, every moment is an opportunity to either be self-aware or not. It is a continual endeavour, a conscious choice to be self-aware.
- It is common knowledge that no one is self-sufficient, we all rely on others from the day we are born until the end. In this sense, living in society, the way we behave and react influence not only our lives, but also the people around us and our environment.
- The purpose of developing emotional self-awareness is that it allows us to understand how we could regulate or control our emotions, preventing impulsivity, which could damage our image and relationships. Impulsive behaviour is the process of acting without reflecting upon the consequences and being emotionally driven.
- In addition, our emotions bring different corporeal sensations which, depending of the intensity, could also affect our health. As an example, in situations when we feel too much pressure, we could have adrenaline and cortisol discharge. Both hormones, when in excess, increase your heart rate, elevate your blood pressure and increase sugars in the blood.
- On the other hand, positive emotions can affect our lives in a good way, having an influence on the survival of the human species. Here, emotional self-awareness in the sense of inculcating positive emotions helps in the long term to deal with the varied universe of human emotions.
Thus, the present world as well as the post pandemic stage has necessitated the importance of becoming “Emotionally Smart” by paying attention to the signals of our self-awareness and enhance human living experience for the larger good of all.
4. How does emotional intelligence help in negotiations? Explain with the help of suitable examples.
Candidates are expected first define emotional intelligence and then explain how emotional intelligence helps in negotiations with suitable examples.
Emotional Intelligence is the ability to “Recognize, understand and manage our own emotions Recognize, understand and influence the emotions of others In practical terms, this means being aware that emotions can drive our behaviour and impact people (positively and negatively), and learning how to manage those emotions both our own and others .
Emotional intelligence useful for negotiation:
- Negotiators high in Emotional Intelligence, have many abilities that assist them in creating joint value for all parties involved in the deal. For example former IAS officer O P Chaudhary in establishing an Education City in Dantewada district, Chattisgarh was made possible only by winning the confidence of the tribals with ability if negotiations.
- Competitive bargaining in a negotiation, where one side gains at the cost of the other, is only half of the story. Effective negotiating also depends on the ability to ensure that other parties’ interests are also met.
- Leaders should be able to adapting to changing circumstances in their workplaces. For example if a teammate leaves, an emotionally intelligent leader will try to find a suitable replacement and know how to keep his team motivated. Ability to understand and manage their emotions and of those around them help emotionally intelligent leaders to navigate through difficult circumstances.
- People high in EI are fully aware of their natural response to ‘tension.’ Thereby, they are more open to cope with and even adapt to such situations. This allows them to think objectively about how to achieve their goals in the negotiation. For examples Bureaucrats need to know emotions, moods and drives of persons with whom they are negotiating targeted for better acquaintance with the nature of problems in society and their possible solutions.
- By creating a positive negotiating atmosphere, a negotiator high in EI is likely to get better results. In addition, by understanding subtle cues and observing counterpart’s reaction, they would be able to determine the optimal offer necessary to satisfy the counterpart. For example Whether you’re dealing with a trading partner, competitor, customer or colleague, being able to empathise and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off.
- Person lacks EI often is misunderstood it’s hard to understand how you come across to others. You feel misunderstood because you don’t deliver your message in a way that people can understand this snap relationship and hamper negotiation process with people and team. For example recent farmer protest and rallies highlights the inadequate negotiation with farmer this affects the trust towards system and working of bureaucracy.
- Maintaining composure and a positive problem-solving attitude benefits the creation of joint objective value. Another component of EI, that is, regulating ones’ emotions, also facilitates the negotiation process. For example NSA chief Ajit doval is known for negotiation for insurgency handling in northeast area. Therefore, EI helps a civil servant to deal effectively with unreasonable people.
The value and benefits of emotional intelligence are vast in terms of personal and professional success. It is a core competency in many vocations, can support the advancement towards academic and professional success, improve relationships, and boost negotiation skills, the list goes on.
5. What are your views on the idea of domicile-based reservation in private jobs?
Substantiate your views.
Approach- Candidate is required to give context of the question and then provide the constitutional argument and supreme court judgements on the same. Citing some global examples answer can be concluded with the future of workforce in globalised world.
The Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Act, 2021 provides for reservation for a local candidate, which has been defined under the law as someone “domiciled in State of Haryana”. Under the law, every employer is required to employ 75% local candidates for posts where the gross monthly salary is not more than ₹50,000.
What constitution says?
- Article 16(2) states that “no citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect or, any employment or office under the State”.
- However, Article 16(3) of the Constitution provides an exception by saying that Parliament may make a law “prescribing” a requirement of residence for jobs in a particular state. This power vests solely in the Parliament, not state legislatures.
Is domicile based reservation justified?
- When the Constitution came into force, India turned itself into one nation from a geographical unit of individual principalities and the idea of the universality of Indian citizenship took root.
- India has common citizenship, which gives citizens the liberty to move around freely in any part of the country, the requirement of a place of birth or residence cannot be qualifications for granting employment in any state.
- Equality enshrined in the Constitution is not mathematical equality and does not mean all citizens will be treated alike without any distinction. To this effect, the Constitution underlines two distinct aspects which together form the essence of equality law non-discrimination among equals, and affirmative action to equalise the un equals.
- While issue of domicile based reservation in public employment is widely discussed, and as a state instrument can be used for public welfare. But the private sector is highly competitive and in a global emerging market this step stands regressive.
- India in past protested against the same law, which makes it mandatory for firms to employ locals in Kuwait. This led to massive job loss for Indians. If we apply the same logic, state has to make sure that meritocracy be basis of any private job, and not the privilege of being born in particular state.
- We live in highly integrated world. Free flow of goods, services and labour forms basis of future. With this step we might be closing our gates to new talent and innovative ideas.
What is the view of supreme court?
- The Supreme Court has ruled against reservation based on place of birth or residence. In 1984, ruling in Dr Pradeep Jain v Union of India, the issue of legislation for “sons of the soil” was discussed. The court expressed an opinion that such policies would be unconstitutional but did not expressly rule on it as the case was on different aspects of the right to equality.
- In a subsequent ruling in Sunanda Reddy v State of Andhra Pradesh (1995), the Supreme Court affirmed the observation in Pradeep Jain to strike down a state government policy that gave 5% extra weightage to candidates who had studied with Telugu as the medium of instruction.
- Some of the States are adopting ‘sons of the soil’ policies prescribing reservation or preference based on domicile or residence requirement for employment or appointment…Prima facie this would seem to be constitutionally impermissible, said the court.
- Though the argument presented is in relation to public employment, the same logic can be applied to private sector. Private sector is strength of our emerging economy, these reservations will ultimately limit the options and is against the fundamental rights.
India has one of the largest working population in the world. The demographic dividend India enjoys, if not utilised well will turn into disaster. In the chronic unemployment scenario we have to create an environment of competent, skilled and secure employment opportunities. India as integrated market will emerge only when we address this inward looking attitude. Indian Citizen from any corner of country enjoys fundamental right of equality and shall not be deprived of opportunities at any level.