Ratification of Kigali Amendment

  • IASbaba
  • August 19, 2021
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Ratification of Kigali Amendment

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-III- Environment

In news: The Union Cabinet has given its approval for ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer for phase down of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by India.

  • A national strategy for phase down of hydrofluorocarbons will be developed after required consultation with all the industry stakeholders by 2023.
  • Amendments to the existing legislation framework, the Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules to allow appropriate control of the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons to ensure compliance with the Kigali Amendment will be done by mid-2024.

The Kigali Amendment:

  • Parties to the Montreal Protocol, under the Kigali Amendment, will phase down production and consumption of Hydrofluorocarbons, commonly known as HFCs.
    • The Montreal Protocol, effective from 1989, is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances (especially chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)) that are responsible for ozone depletion.
  • HFC were introduced as non-ozone depleting alternative to CFC such as R-12 and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) such as R-21.
  • While HFCs do not deplete the stratospheric ozone layer, they have high global warming potential ranging from 12 to 14,000, which have adverse impact on climate.
  • Recognizing the growth in use of HFCs, especially in Refrigeration and Air-conditioning sector the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, reached another agreement in 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda to add HFCs to the list of controlled substances and approved a timeline for their gradual reduction by 80-85 per cent by the late 2040s.
  • All amendments and adjustments of the Montreal Protocol, prior to the Kigali Amendment have Universal support.
  • It has divided the signatory parties into three groups-
    • The first group consists of rich and developed economies like USA, UK and EU countries who will start to phase down HFCs by 2019 and reduce it to 15% of 2012 levels by 2036.
    • The second group consists of emerging economies like China, Brazil as well as some African countries who will start phase down by 2024 and reduce it to 20% of 2021 levels by 2045.
    • The third group consists of developing economies and some of the hottest climatic countries like India, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia who will start phasing down HFCs by 2028 and reduce it to 15% of 2024-2026 levels till 2047.
  • It also has a provision for a multilateral fund for developing countries for adaptation and mitigation.
  • The phase down of HFCs is expected to 
    • Prevent the emission of up to 105 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent of greenhouse gases
    • Avoid up to 0.5 degree Celsius of global temperature rise by 2100, while continuing to protect the ozone layer.

India and Montreal Protocol:

  • India became a Party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer on 19 June 1992 and since then has ratified the amendments to the Montreal Protocol and has successfully met the phase out targets of all the Ozone Depleting Substances as per the Montreal Protocol Schedule.
  • As per Kigali agreement, India will complete its phase down of HFCs in 4 steps from 2032 onwards with cumulative reduction of 2024-2026 levels by
    • 10% in 2032
    • 20% in 2037
    • 30% in 2042 
    • 85% in 2047.

News Source:  PIB

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