2. How did the disintegration of the USSR shape the future of Eastern Europe? Analyse.
सोवियत संघ के विघटन ने पूर्वी यूरोप के भविष्य को किस प्रकार आकार दिया? विश्लेषण करें।
Students are expected to write about the fall of USSR and then simply write about how it affected and shaped the eastern European nations.
The Soviet Union was established in 1922 by a treaty signed between Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia Soviet Socialist republics and Trans-Caucasian Federation. It later constituted fifteen smaller states. Notwithstanding its achievements, the USSR met its fateful decline in 1991 mainly due to Mikhael Gorbvachev’s economic and political reforms- Perestroika and Glasnost respectively.
- Rise of nationalism among countries like Russia, Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia etc is the most important and immediate cause of disintegration of the USSR.
- The national feeling was strong among the more prosperous areas in USSR and not in Central Asian republics. Ordinary people among prosperous republics didn’t like to pay big price to uplift the backward Central Asian republics.
- Emergence of new countries and new alliances – Eg: Baltic countries aligned with NATO.
- Changes in politics of Europe led to dilution of division between Western and Eastern Europe. Demolition of the Berlin wall, the unification of Germany, the end of the Warsaw Pact and rise of democratic regimes changed the politics of Europe.
- The membership of European Union enlarged with eastern European countries leading to emergence of new economic bloc -EU.
- With the EU looming over the realm, the now-independent countries of Eastern Europe shifted their economic direction away from Moscow and the collapsing Communist state and toward the core industrial countries of Western Europe and the EU.
- With the fall of Communism came economic reforms that shifted countries from central planning to open markets.
- Great elegance has helped it become one of the major tourist attractions in Eastern Europe. Major movie studios have also traveled to the city to film.
- There was Change in power equations many eastern European countries joined the bipolar world, capitalist ideology, IMF, OECD, World Bank etc.
Hence, the disintegration of the USSR resulted in a phase of USA’s dominance in world politics. Countries like India maintained good relations with Russia post-disintegration and shared the idea of having a multipolar world order. India’s position also improved at international and regional level not in a hegemonic way but as a responsible and powerful country.