1. Do you think the policy of self-reliance in the form of ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ reconciles with the reality of globalisation? Critically analyse. (10 Marks)
क्या आपको लगता है कि ‘आत्मनिर्भर भारत‘ के रूप में आत्मनिर्भरता की नीति वैश्वीकरण की वास्तविकता से मेल खाती है? समालोचनात्मक विश्लेषण करें।
Candidates need to write about the idea of self reliance with respect to policy of aatmanirbhar bharat and critically analyse how it’s reconciling with globalized order and globalisation.
It is important, at the very onset, to clarify that this idea of self-reliance is not about a return to Nehruvian import substitution or autarkic isolationism. The prime minister modi emphasised that his vision includes active participation in post-COVID global supply chains as well as the need to attract foreign direct investment.
Atmanirbhar bharat policy raising question over globalisation:
- India has been one of the major beneficiaries of economic globalisation — a fact attested by IMF.
- Similarly, in times of globalisation and being governed by the rules of the WTO, any efforts at creating systemic impediments to the smooth flow of trade across nations on trivial nationalism parameters are surely going to backfire, one way or the other.
- Such a stance may have a recoil effect on India’s foreign trade too. The EIU said that a more protectionist trade stance and any increase in tariff rates for imports may lead to punitive tariffs or the revocation of trade benefits from its partners.
- India is dependent on China for imports related to electronics, solar equipment, pharmaceutical (Active pharmaceutical ingredients) and Capital goods.
- Without developing domestic capacity for manufacturing in these areas, breaking away from dependence on China would not be easy.
Self-reliance implies that product and factor markets are made flexible in order to allow the Indian economy to adapt to the problems and opportunities of an emerging post-COVID world:
- A significant part of the economic dimension of “Atmanirbhar Bharat” is on increasing the competitiveness of Indian production and building connections to global value chains (GVCs).
- This implies a need to turn away from protectionist policies, while using the lessons from new industrial and trade policy.
- To achieve real self-reliance, we are incentivising innovation, research and development to keep India at the cutting edge of the industry which come in line international trade.
- It is not protectionism. It is not inward looking. It is not just import substitution and it is not economic nationalism. Main philosophy is to make India self-reliant by creating an eco-system that will allow Indian companies to be highly competitive on the global stage.
The Self-Reliance neither signifies any exclusionary or isolationist strategies but involves creation of a helping hand to the whole world it’s about being vocal for “local” which is a key complement of Atma-Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.In this context, people must internalise the concept of valuing local products and artefacts and promoting them. Only after this the dream of transforming “Local” India into a “Glocal” India will be possible.