Day 45 – Q 2. What is the Kavach train protection system? How does it work? Explain. (10 Marks)

  • IASbaba
  • March 16, 2022
  • 0
GS 3, Sci & Technology, TLP-UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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2. What is the Kavach train protection system? How does it work? Explain. (10 Marks)

कवच ट्रेन सुरक्षा प्रणाली क्या है? यह कैसे काम करता है? समझाएं।


Students are expected to write about the Kavach the train protection scheme recently announced in budget explain how it work and it’s benefits. 


The Kavach system was announced in the 2022 Union Budget as a part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative. Around 2,000 km of rail network is planned to be brought under the indigenous system to enable safety and capacity augmentation in 2022-23.


Causes of rail accidents in India:

  • Derailments
  • Failure of railway staff
  • Unmanned level crossings (UMLCs)
  • Congestion
  • Collisions- Due to foggy weather, low signal visibility, poor signaling etc.

Recently, the Indian Railways tested ‘Kavach’-Automatic Train Protection System by making two trains move towards each other at full speed.

Kavach train protection scheme:

  • It is India’s very own automatic protection system in development since 2012, under the name Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), which got rechristened to Kavach or “armour”.
  • Simply put, it is a set of electronic devices and Radio Frequency Identification devices installed in locomotives, in the signalling system as well the tracks that talk to each other using ultra high radio frequencies to control the brakes of trains and also alert drivers, all based on the logic programmed into them. 
  • It continuously refresh the movement information of a train, it is able to send out triggers when a loco pilot jumps signal, called Signal Passed at Danger (SPAD), a grave offence in railway operations with respect to safety, and the key to accidents like collision. 
  • The devices also continuously relay the signals ahead to the locomotive, making it useful for loco pilots in low visibility, especially during dense fog.
  • TCAS or Kavach includes the key elements from already existing, and tried and tested systems like the European Train Protection and Warning System, and the indigenous Anti Collison Device.
  • The current form of Kavach adheres to the highest level of safety and reliability standard called Safety Integrity Level 4.
  • It will also include stationary equipment to gather signalling inputs and relay them to a central system to enable seamless communication with the train crew and stations.
  • Over 13,000 train accidents in 2020, 32 lives lost daily on average as per NCRB report. With this type of protection system trains collision with other train can be reduced. 


Train accidents cause loss of life and property as well as are detrimental for the economy. Preventing their occurrence with generational change in rail system with technological up gradation will ensure not just safety of lives but will also be beneficial for the economy as a whole and fulfill mission zero accident 2016-17.

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