TLP-UPSC Mains Answer Writing, Yesterday's Synopsis
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SYNOPSIS [21st March,2022] Day 50: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. The rise of rogue nations thirsty for vengeance is mostly a result of past humiliations? Do you agree? Substantiate your views.
Candidates need to write about the rogue states and with few examples explain the term. Also highlight the background and rise of rogue states in context of world history.
We Consider North Korea, Iran, Sudan, and Syria as “rogue states.” The concept of Rogue State, however, is not a novel one in global history. Germany under the rule of the ruthless Adolf Hitler, Libya under notorious Muammar Gaddafi, and Iraq under the reign of iniquitous Saddam Hussein were all once considered rogue states.
Rogue state bieng seen to meet certain criteria, such as being ruled by authoritarian or totalitarian governments that severely restrict human rights, sponsoring terrorism and seeking to proliferate weapons of mass destruction.
Rise of rogue states:
- Due to possession of Nuclear weapons with Iran, North Korea, many countries perceive it as a rogue state. Also, countries with no nuclear weapons such as afghanistan libya sudan can disrespect international order and laws known as rogue state.
- These countries has gone through many conflicts due to internal disturbance, cold War politics and geo strategic location.
- There were sanctions including embargoes on weapons imports and exports, frozen funds and bank transfers, restrictions on travel for example on North Korean diplomats and a ban on imports of luxury goods.
- The US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 marks an important turning point in Iraq’s history. The events brought an end to Ba’ath party’s decades-long reign and Saddam Hussein’s dictatorial administration.
- In 2011, the first civil war broke out in Libya against the regime of Gaddafi. This war was a part of a series of anti-dictatorial protests in countries of Arab world known as the Arab Spring.
- In response to the civil war, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya in March 2011, aimed at protecting civilians and providing cover for a rebel advance.
- Soviet invaded Afghanistan in 1979. “Mujahideen” fighters (separatist group), with the U.S.’s support, repelled Soviet forces in the 1980s. Soviet withdrew in 1989 and the government collapse. Subsequently, civil war erupted for control of the country.
Generally, rogue states do not play by the rules of international politics. Rather they are outsiders to the international community who defiantly flout and show contempt for international laws and policies that are meant to promote global peace with an aim of attaining their own selfish interests and disturb global peace.
2. Why did the Vietnam war take place? Who were the major stakeholders in this war? What happened in its aftermath? Discuss.
Students are expected to write about the Vietnam War write about the stakeholders and reasons for Vietnam War. Also highlight the aftermath consequences of the Vietnam War.
Vietnam War (1950s to 1970s) was the longest and most polarizing conflict in the history of United States. This conflict was basically a proxy war but it took life of some 58,000 American soldiers and 1.5 million Vietnamese. For United States, the war was a complete disaster.
- US President Eisenhower (1953-61) was a supporter of the Domino Theory. After China, North Korea, South Vietnam will also goes the communist way sooner or later the communist revolution would reach all other Southeast Asian nations. This will threaten huge US investments in Japan.
- Vietnam was divided during the Cold War, when tensions between the U.S. and The Soviet Union were at an all-time high.
- The Geneva Accords were signed in July of 1954 and split Vietnam at the 17th parallel. North Vietnam would be ruled by Ho Chi Minh’s communist government and South Vietnam would be led by emperor Bao Dai.
- The Collapse of French Indochina and Rise of Ho Chi Minh. When the French rejected his plan, the Viet Minh resorted to guerilla warfare to fight for an independent Vietnam.
Stakeholders in the war:
- Soviet Union, China, and all communist allies backed North Vietnam, while the US and all other anti-communist allies backed South Vietnam.
- It was a conflict that raged in three countries: Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
- Both Japan and France had mobilised forces to take control of the region by 1938.
- Vietnamese nationalists, particularly Ho Chi Minh inflamed nationalist feelings in Indo-China. He encouraged Vietnamese to oppose the Franco-Japanese occupation of their country, with the support of the communist group Viet Minh.
Aftermath of Vietnam war:
- Although the United States’ direct involvement in the war ended, fighting between the two Vietnamese forces continued. Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to northern forces on April 30, 1975, and the country was unified as a communist country.
- Around 3 million Vietnamese people, 300,000 Cambodians, 60,000 Loatians, and 58,220 American military personnel were estimated to have died.
- In 1976, Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.
- In 1986, the communist country began political and economic reforms that helped Vietnam gradually integrate into the global economy. In 2007, it became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
- Loss of prestige for US and her allies – both domestically and internationally
- Start of the proxy Mujahedeen war in Afghanistan by the US to counter Soviet Union without direct confrontation and possibility of a disaster like Vietnam
The struggle between the different camps led to a Cold War which unlike a conventional war lasted for over four decades, worsening economy, growth and life for humanity as the opposing camps fought for geostrategic influence in various continents.
3. Why did communism fail as a politico-economic system? Critically analyse.
Candidates need to critically analyse why did communism fail as a politico-economic system Introduction.
There are numerous reasons to justify that communism in practice had major weaknesses as an economic system but the main concern would be the issue of human incentive. The theory of communism assumed that every human under its ruling would have a “good heart” with the incentive to work for the overall benefit of the country. In human nature, it is natural for humans to express self-centred feelings as a primary instinct but communism expected society to take a more humanitarian approach to the functioning of an economy.
Why did communism fail as a politico-economic system?
- Communism collapsed because it didn’t take into account the capabilities and potential of individual people, and it measured potential as an entire contribution of society. Famous examples of when this didn’t work was the Russian revolution.
- By default, a communist country, such as the Soviet Union, valued utilitarianism above everything else. This meant that every action performed within the state had to have a palpable ending.
- A reason for the failure of Communism as an economic system is because communism expected the country to be an autarky.
- This meant that there would be no international trading of any produce and resources, including labour.
- Consequently, this would hinder the global distribution of technology as well as a varied and skilled workforce.
- This would result in slower economic development, because making revenue from tourism and exports wouldn’t even exist, as well as causing the country to become increasingly disjointed from the world to an extent where society could become ignorant of modern practices and technological advancements.
- When all of this occurs, there would be a lack in modernity throughout a communist economy, and this would cause the country to become underdeveloped and backwards moving, rather than a fully functioning representation of a developed economy.
- In communism, individualism makes room for the collective. Ideals like freedom of speech were considered dangerous to the Communist party.
- The forced collectivization act and the lack of artistic freedom are just two examples of how communism chose to circumvent some of the fundamental human rights.
- Another reason is that communism would treat everyone homogenously which means that everyone would follow one order of beliefs or culture regardless of their language, religious or cultural differences.
- A non-existent multicultural society, while supplemented by the lack of tourism would not be economically beneficial for the economy.
Overall, communism failed as an economic system because it did not adapt for ever changing requirements, and due to its economic restrictions, it could not develop as quickly as capitalist countries. Looking at communism from a more diplomatic perspective, one could argue that Karl Marx’s theory of how capitalism was a flawed economic system whereby ultimately economy would collapse is also a true representation of what occurs in a communist state.
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