For Previous TLP (ARCHIVES) – CLICK HERE
SYNOPSIS [2nd March,2022] Day 31: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. In a globalised world, events occurring beyond the borders have domestic repercussions. In this light, examine the possible implications of Russian aggression against Ukraine on India.
Candidates need to write about Ukraine crisis and then simply write implications of it on India in current and future scenario also suggest wayforward.
The Ukraine crisis has crossed a critical point, with Russia following up its recognition of rebel regions in eastern Ukraine (Donbas region)- Donetsk and Luhansk. The conflict is now the largest attack by one state on another in Europe since the Second World War, and the first since the Balkan conflict in the 1990s.
Implications of Russian aggression against Ukraine on India:
- India’s imports of petroleum products from Russia are only a fraction of its total oil import bill and thus, replaceable. But getting alternative sources for fertilizers and sunflower oil may not be as easy.
- Exports to Russia account for less than 1% of India’s total exports; pharmaceuticals and tea could face some challenges, as will shipments to CIS countries.
- Freight rate hikes (due to increased risk in global trade) could make overall exports less competitive too, but it is the indirect impact on the trade account that is more worrying.
- The surge in crude oil prices will increase India’s inelastic oil import bill, and gold imports could increase and keep the rupee under pressure. As a result, trade and current account deficits may be jeopardised, although forex reserves are healthy.
- India imports more than 80% of its oil requirement, but the share of oil imports in its total imports is around 25%.
- Rising oil prices could speed up already rising inflation. Oil-related products have a share of over 9% in the WPI basket.
- Also, sanctions on Russia by the West could impact its trade with the India in strategic issues such as S400.
- The prospective Russian invasion of Ukraine comes amidst India’s military tensions with China and Delhi’s continued dependence on Moscow’s military supplies. Shift of West and USA from Indo Pacific to European Baltic region.
- It also comes at a time when Delhi is trying to build an international coalition against China’s brazen attacks on the territorial sovereignty of its Asian neighbours.
- Huge challenge of evacuation of Indian citizens students from the Ukraine that is around 20000 and other Ukraine bordering warton region.
- It will have to balance the pressure from one strategic partner to condemn the violation of international law, with that from another to understand its legitimate concerns.
- Delhi must talk continually to all sides, and engage with all of its partners, keeping in mind that there is no justification for the violation of any country’s territorial sovereignty.
- India must also make it clear to coercing countries that their “with us or against us” formulations are hardly constructive.
2. Welfare policies can’t ensure sustainable social transformation unless they ensure social empowerment. Elucidate.
Students are expected to write about the social empowerment and how welfare policies were unable to ensure sustainable social transformation. Therefore suggest measures ideas how with social empowerment welfare policies can ensure sustainable social transformation.
Social Empowerment means all the sections of society in India, have equal control over their lives, are able to take important decisions in their lives, and have equal opportunities. Without empowering all sections of society equally, a nation can never have a good growth trajectory.
Welfare policies unable to ensure sustainable social transformation:
- Unequal Distribution of Wealth and Non-inclusive growth: In the last five years, only 1% of the wealthiest in India increased their share in wealth of around 60% and the richest 10% in India own more than four times more wealth than the remaining 90%.
- Dismal condition of Education and Health: On comparison with similarly placed emerging economies, India spends way too low in the education and health sector.
- Education status in India: Independent India retained the largely colonial superstructure of primary, secondary, and tertiary education, which emphasis on rote learning and obsession with marks in the exams.
- Health status in India: Even after many government schemes, both the infant mortality rate and the maternal mortality rate remains high. There is a high prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children, reflected in a high percentage of Child stunting, wasting and underweight.
Welfare policies through social empowerment ensuring sustainability:
- Education and health care are not only vital for quality of life, they have much to contribute to social empowerment and social change.
- India needs to broaden its base in the spheres of education, healthcare and women’s equality to foster social empowerment.
- There is a need for proper utilization of funds by plugging the loopholes arising from procedural and institutional bottlenecks.
- The mantra of availability, affordability, and assurance must be followed for improving status and performance of Health care in India.
- Road to sustainable social empowerment goes through breaking away from shackles of poverty, patriarchy, and Caste both in the public and private spheres.
- Many schemes and programs related to employments, such as, MGNREGA, Aajivika, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Antodaya yojana, etc. Along with schemes involving subsidies, food security, Ayushman Bharat, Ujaala, etc ensure empowerment but need to recalibrate it for sustainability.
The Objectives of State as per preamble of Indian constitution are Justice, Equality, Fraternity and Liberty. These objectives point towards social empowerment of the vulnerable and hitherto socially disadvantaged section. Social empowerment will help in political and economic progress of our country and in turn help us all. The India envisaged by our forefathers is a socially empowered India and with many political-economic awareness Interventions which we must carry forward in right direction.
3. What is your interpretation of secularism when it comes to educational institutions. Substantiate your views.
Candidates need to write about their interpretation of secularism when it comes to educational institutions and provide evidence for it.
Secularism has been a much used (and abused) term in India’s popular, particularly political, lexicon for the last seventy years. It has meant “all things to all people,” making it difficult for common people as well as political commentators to arrive at a precise definition/meaning of it.
Interpretation of secularism when it comes to educational institutions:
The Collins dictionary defines secularism as a system of social organization and education where religion is not allowed to play a part in civil affairs. When it comes to educational institutions, secularism can be interpreted from the following:
- The Indian state may engage with religion negatively to oppose religious tyranny. It may also choose a positive mode of engagement. Thus, the Indian constitution grants all religious minorities, the rights to establish and maintain their own educational institutions, which may receive assistance from the state.
- Article 28 which authorizes educational institutions maintained by different religious groups to impart religious instruction.
- Article 29 and Article 30 that guarantee certain cultural and educational rights to the minorities. Article 29 states that there shall be no discrimination among citizens on the ground of religion, race, caste, language, or any of them.
- Article 30 that states that all religious or linguistic minorities shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
- One way of reducing religious discrimination is to work together for “mutual enlightenment “. Education is the only way of helping change the mind set of people. Hence secularism should ensure education is used in the similar manner to mutually enlighten.
However, there are several issues that highlight secularism in terms if educational institutions in a negative way:
- Schools, colleges, and universities have failed to inculcate the concept of secularism in the minds of the young educated people, the thirst for knowledge and truth and a mutual feeling of respect.
- The defective faulty and ill-functional educational institutions which have made believe to be a part of groups and communities, have drastically failed to cultivate critical thinking and a universal humanitarian approach among the young people.
In education, everyone should seek the best way to live together. Schools, colleges, and universities should promote value-education and a humanitarian approach to make the younger students understand and religious traditions of each and every religion in the country. The State should grant assurance to every individual irrespective of their religious barriers that he has the right to freely profess, practise, and propagate his religion and freedom of conscience as per the law of the land