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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 10th May 2022

  • IASbaba
  • May 10, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Naming of Cyclone

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Geography
  • Mains – GS 1 (Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc)

In News: Cyclone Asani, has developed over southeast regions of Bay of Bengal

How the cyclones are named and what are the guidelines on adopting their names?

  • In 2000, a group of nations called WMO/ESCAP (World Meteorological Organisation/United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific), which comprised Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand, decided to start naming cyclones in the region.
  • After each country sent in suggestions, the WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones (PTC) finalised the list.
  • The WMO/ESCAP expanded to include five more countries in 2018 — Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
  • The list of 169 cyclone names released by IMD in April 2020 were provided by these countries — 13 suggestions from each of the 13 countries.

Why is it important to name cyclones?

  • Adopting names for cyclones makes it easier for people to remember
  • With a name, it is also easy to identify individual cyclones, create awareness of its development, rapidly disseminate warnings to increase community preparedness and remove confusion where there are multiple cyclonic systems over a region.

What are the guidelines to adopt names of cyclones?

While picking names for cyclones, countries need to follow some rules.

  • The proposed name should be neutral to (a) politics and political figures (b) religious believes, (c) cultures and (d) gender
  • Name should be chosen in such a way that it does not hurt the sentiments of any group of population over the globe
  • It should not be very rude and cruel in nature
  • It should be short, easy to pronounce and should not be offensive to any member
  • The maximum length of the name will be eight letters
  • The proposed name should be provided with its pronunciation and voice over
  • The names of tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean will not be repeated. Once used, it will cease to be used again.

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2020)

  1. Jet streams occur in the Northern Hemisphere only.
  2. Only some cyclones develop an eye.
  3. The temperature inside the eye of a cyclone is nearly 10°C lesser than that of the surroundings.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1 and 3 only

Aadhaar

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs

In News: The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has opposed a petition by Delhi Police seeking directions from the High Court that would allow investigators to match a suspect’s picture and chance prints (latent fingerprints) from the crime scene with the Aadhaar database to help identify the accused in a case of murder.

  • The UIDAI, which issues the unique Aadhaar number to residents of India, is prohibited by law from sharing any core biometric information with police.

What Happened?

  • Delhi Police approached Delhi High Court under Section 33(1) of The Aadhaar Act, according to which a judge of a High Court can order the disclosure of information on identity in certain cases.

Section 33(1)

  • Nothing contained in sub-section (2) or sub-section (5) of section 28 or sub-section (2) of section 29 shall apply in respect of any disclosure of information, including identity information or authentication records, made pursuant to an order of a court not inferior to that of a Judge of a High Court

Sections 28(2) and 28(5) of The Aadhaar Act, 2016 say that

  • UIDAI “shall ensure confidentiality of identity information and authentication records of individuals” and that no UIDAI employee can, either during service or later, “reveal any information stored in the Central Identities Data Repository or authentication record to anyone”.

What UIDAI says?

  • According to UIDAI, the Delhi Police’s request is contrary to Section 29 of the Act, which prohibits it from sharing core biometric information — fingerprint, iris scan or any such biological attribute — with any agency “for any reason whatsoever”.
  • The UIDAI has also said that no Aadhaar data can be shared by any individual or entity with anyone without the consent of the resident or holder of the Aadhaar.
  • Section 33, the provision under which Delhi Police has approached the court, allows the disclosure of only identification information including photograph or authentication records, but no core biometric information.

Note: There is also a national security exception — an officer not below the rank of the Secretary to the central government can order disclosure of information including identity information or authentication record in the interest of national security

Tech impediment

  • UIDAI had told the court that no “1:N” sharing of data was possible, it had to be done on a 1:1 basis only.
  • “The Aadhaar technology only permits biometric authentications which are done on a 1:1 basis for which it is necessary to have the Aadhaar number of an individual
  • UIDAI has also said it does not collect biometric information — iris scans and fingerprints — based on technologies, standards or procedures suitable for forensic purposes.
  • According to UIDAI, for Aadhaar based authentication, it was essential to have both “live biometrics” and the Aadhaar.
  • The authority can establish the identity of an individual only through the Aadhaar number — if that is not possible, it is technically not feasible to even provide the photograph of an unknown accused
  • The technological architecture of UIDAI or its mandate for Aadhaar based authentication does not allow for any instance of 1:N matching wherein finger prints including latent and chance fingerprints are matched against the other finger prints in the UIDAI database, except for generation of Aadhaar number

Unique Identification Authority of India

  • The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is a statutory authority established on 12 July 2016 by the Government of India under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, following the provisions of the Aadhaar Act 2016.
  • The UIDAI is mandated to assign a 12-digit unique identification (UID) number (Aadhaar) to all the residents of India.

Source: Indian Express

Q.1) Consider the following statements (2018)

  1. Aadhaar card can be used as a proof of citizenship or domicile.
  2. Once issued, Aadhaar number cannot be deactivated or omitted by the Issuing Authority.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements : (2020)

  1. Aadhaar metadata cannot be stored for more than three months
  2. State cannot enter into any contract with private corporations for sharing of Aadhar data
  3. Aadhaar is mandatory for obtaining insurance products.
  4. Aadhar is mandatory for getting benefits funded out of the Consolidate fund of India.

Which of the statements give above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 4 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3 only

MPLADS

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity (schemes)
  • Mains – GS 2 (Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States and the Performance of these Schemes)

In News: the Union Finance Ministry has ordered revised rules for the scheme, under which the interest that the fund accrues will be deposited in the Consolidated Fund of India

  • So far, the interest accrued on the fund used to be added to the MPLADS account and could be used for the development projects.

Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS)

  • It is a Central Sector Scheme which was announced in December 1993.
  • To enable MPs to recommend works of developmental nature with emphasis on the creation of durable community assets primarily in their Constituencies

Implementation

  • The process under MPLADS starts with the Members of Parliament recommending works to the Nodal District Authority.
  • The Nodal District concerned is responsible for implementing the eligible works

Funding

  • Each year, MPs receive Rs. 5 crore in two installments of Rs. 2.5 crore each.
  • Funds under MPLADS are non-lapsable.
  • Lok Sabha MPs have to recommend the district authorities projects in their Lok Sabha constituencies, while Rajya Sabha MPs have to spend it in the state that has elected them to the House.
  • Nominated Members of both the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha can recommend works anywhere in the country.

Guidelines for MPLADS implementation

  • The document ‘Guidelines on MPLADS’ was published by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation in June 2016
  • It recommended MPs to recommend works in the area with at least 15 per cent of their entitlement for the year for areas inhabited by Scheduled Caste population and 7.5 per cent for areas inhabited by ST population.
  • According to the Guidelines MPLAD funds can also be used for implementation of the schemes such as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan), conservation of water through rain water harvesting and Sansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana, etc.
  • The district authority must inspect at least 10% of all works under implementation every year.

Source: Hindustan Times

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to the funds under Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS), which of the following statements are correct? (2020)

  1. MPLADS funds must be used to create durable assets like physical infrastructure for health, education, etc.
  2. A specified portion of each MP’s fund must benefit SC/ST populations.
  3. MPLADS funds are sanctioned on yearly basis and the unused funds cannot be carried forward to the next year.
  4. The district authority must inspect at least 10% of all works under implementation every year.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 4 only

Ethanol Blending

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Environment
  • Mains – GS 3 (Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation)

In News: Petroleum Minister has stated that the level of ethanol blending in petrol in India has reached 9.99 per cent

Ethanol Blending

  • India had targeted 10 per cent ethanol blending in petrol by the end of 2022 and 20 per cent blending by 2030
  • But recently Government of India has advanced the target for 20% ethanol blending in petrol to 2025 from 2030
  • The Centre has also targeted 5 per cent blending of biodiesel with diesel by 2030

Ethanol

  • It is one of the principal biofuels, which is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration
  • The ethanol blending programme is aimed at reducing the country’s dependence on crude oil imports, cutting carbon emissions and boosting farmers’ incomes.
  • The Centre has also announced an additional duty of Rs 2 per litre on unblended fuels starting October to incentivise blending

Source: Indian Express

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Is it possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitation(s) of developing countries in promoting this industry? (2017)

  1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents
  2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires high level of expertise/ technology until the construction is completed
  3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of a large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Bond Yields

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Economy

In News: Government said to urge Reserve Bank to help push bond yields lower

Bond

  • A bond is a debt investment.
  • Corporates or governments issue bonds directly to investors, instead of obtaining loans from a bank.
  • This is to raise money and finance a variety of projects and activities.

Bond Yield

  • Yield – In simple terms, yield is the amount of return that an investor will realize on a bond.
  • If the investor holds the bond to maturity, s/he will be guaranteed to get the principal amount back plus the interest.
  • However, a bond does not necessarily have to be held to maturity by the investors.
  • Instead, investors may sell them for a higher or lower price to other investors.
  • The bond prices and yields generally move in opposite directions.
  • This is because, as a bond’s price increases, its yield to maturity falls.

Current Status: The yields have hit their highest since 2019, as inflation risks push foreign investors to sell bonds

How RBI controls bond yield?

  • The RBI aims to keep yields lower as that reduces borrowing costs for the government while preventing any upward movement in lending rates in the market.
  • Thus it controls bond yields either by buying back government bonds or conduct open market operations to cool yields

Source: The Hindu

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Indian Government Bond yields are influenced by which of the following? (2021)

  1. Actions of the United States Federal Reserve
  2. Actions of the Reserve Bank of India
  3. Inflation and short-term interest rates.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Baba’s Explainer – Naga Peace Talks and NSCN

Syllabus

  • GS-2: Federalism and Challenges
  • GS-3: Internal Security

Context:  The Naga insurgency, rooted in Naga nationalism, is one of the oldest insurgencies in the country. Recently released annual report of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) stated that the Isak-Muivah faction of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-IM) was involved in 44% of insurgency-related incidents in Nagaland in 2020.

  • One of the largest Naga groups, the NSCN-IM, which signed a formal ceasefire agreement with the Centre in 1997 when the peace talks began, is the main party to the negotiations.
  • The Union government had signed a framework agreement with the NSCN-IM in 2015 to find a solution to the Naga political issue. The negotiations are yet to be concluded.

Read Complete Details on Naga Peace Talks and NSCN – CLICK HERE


Daily Practice MCQs


Q.1) Consider the following statements

  1. Under the Aadhar Act 2016, a judge of a High Court can order the disclosure of information on identity in certain cases
  2. No Aadhaar data can be shared by any individual or entity with anyone without the consent of the resident or holder of the Aadhaar

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With references to MPLADS scheme, consider the following statements

  1. It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme
  2. MPLADS funds are non-lapsable funds
  3. Nominated Members of both the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha can recommend works anywhere in the country

Choose the incorrect statements:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. None
  4. 2 only

Q.3) With reference to Bond yield, consider the following statements

  1. The bond prices and yields move in opposite directions
  2. Lower yields reduces borrowing costs for the government
  3. RBI controls the bond yield by conducting open market operations

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 1 and 3
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 2 and 3

ANSWERS FOR 10th MAY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

1 c
2 a
3 c

 

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