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Poverty

  • IASbaba
  • May 9, 2022
  • 0
Social Issues
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In News: A recent World Bank Report has shown that extreme poverty in India more than halved between 2011 and 2019 – from 22.5 per cent to 10.2 per cent.

  • The reduction was higher in rural areas, from 26.3 per cent to 11.6 per cent.

Reasons for reduction

  • Identification of deprived households on the basis of the Socioeconomic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 across welfare programmes was a game-changer in the efforts to ensure balanced development, socially as well as across regions.

Participation of Women:

  • Coverage of women under the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana and Self Help Groups (SHG) increased from 2.5 crore in 2014 to over 8 crore in 2018
  • This provided a robust framework to connect with communities and created a social capital that helped every programme.

Financial Decentralization

  • Finance Commission transfers were made directly to gram panchayats leading to the creation of basic infrastructure
  • The high speed of road construction under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadhak Yojana created greater opportunities for employment by improving connectivity and enhancing mobility.

Credit Access

  • The social capital of SHGs ensured the availability of credit through banks, micro-finance institutions and MUDRA loans

Basic Needs

  • Thrust on universal coverage for individual household latrines, LPG connections and pucca houses improved standard of living

Co operative federalism

  • The competition among states to improve basic needs helped in development
  • Example: NITI Aayog SDG index

Monitoring

  • Through processes like social and concurrent audits, efforts were made to ensure that resources were fully utilized.
  • Still Poverty persists in India
  • Pandemic and pandemic induced lockdown – loss of livelihood
  • Population Explosion
  • Low Agricultural Productivity
  • Inefficient Resource utilisation
  • Inflation
  • Social Factors – Caste system, communal vilolence etc
  • Climatic Factors – Extreme Weather events – disasters like cyclone, landslides etc

Way forward

  • Realistic Assessment of the present situation of poverty in the country in need of the hour
  • Improving social infrastructure and job opportunities in rural areas
  • Investment in Agriculture by the government is necessary to decrease rural poverty
  • Access to credit, financial inclusion and DBT
  • Adoption of ICT to fight corruption
  • Involvement of citizen in developmental plans, adoption of bottom-up approach etc

A lot has been achieved, much remains to be done. Strong political will and proper implementation of existing schemes is the need of an hour.

Source: Indian Express

 

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