In News: The European Union has recommended that Ukraine and Moldova become candidates for membership in EU.
- If the European Commission’s decision is ratified as expected next week at a summit, it will be a morale boost for Kyiv
- This will pave a way to remove the grey zone in Eastern Europe between the EU and Russia
- And Russia has not opposed the move
- The European Union is a group of 28 countries that operate as a political and economic block.
- The EU grew out of a desire to form a single European political entity to end centuries of warfare among European countries that culminated with World War II
- It is a collective body that defines the European Union’s overall political direction and priorities.
- It comprises of the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
- The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy also takes part in its meetings
- It is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU) that is directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 years or older.
- Together with the Council of the European Union (also known as the ‘Council’), it exercises the legislative function of the EU
Council of the European Union:
- It is part of the essentially bicameral EU legislature and represents the executive governments of the EU’s member states.
European Commission (EC):
- It is an executive body of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
- The Commission operates as a cabinet government, with 28 members of the Commission.
- One of the 28 members is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU):
- It interprets EU law to make sure it is applied in the same way in all EU countries, and settles legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions.
The European Central Bank (ECB):
- It is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy within the Euro zone, which comprises 19 member states of the European Union
Membership of EU
- In order for a country to become part
- ntry must meet Copenhagen Criteria
- The main criteria are the free-market economy, a stable democracy and the rule of law, and the acceptance of all EU legislation, including the euro.
- The regular procedure for EU membership consists of three stages.
- The first stage is when a country is granted the status of an official candidate for membership.
- The second stage is when membership negotiations between the EU and the candidate country start, which is a process that includes the adoption of EU law into national law, and the preparation for the implementation of this law in judicial as well as other reforms.
- The third stage is when the candidate country has met all accession criteria and is ready to become part of the EU.
Source: The Hindu