2.In what ways did the Hindu-Muslim divide weaken the freedom struggle? Explain with the help of suitable examples.
हिन्दू-मुस्लिम टकराव ने स्वतंत्रता संग्राम को किस प्रकार कमजोर किया? उपयुक्त उदाहरणों की सहायता से व्याख्या कीजिए।
A simple straightforward question where candidates need to write about how Hindu Muslim divide during freedom struggle weakens the freedom movement, Give some examples to substantiate your points .
The late nineteenth century saw the emergence of Indian nationalism. Indians felt like one and they tried to overthrow the foreign rule.however the Hindu Muslim divide weakens the freedom struggle.
Partition of Bengal (1905)
- Indian nationalism was gaining in strength and Bengal was the nerve centre of Indian nationalism in the early 1900s.
- Lord Curzon, the Viceroy (1899-1905), attempted to ‘dethrone Calcutta’ from its position as the centre from which the Congress Party manipulated throughout Bengal, and indeed, the whole of India.
- The decision to partition Bengal into two was in the air from December 1903.
- The partition was meant to foster another kind of division – on the basis of religion. The aim was to place Muslim communalists as a counter to the Congress. Curzon promised to make Dacca the new capital.
- This resulted in a lot of discontent among the Indians. Many considered this as a policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ by the British.
- 1905 partition had exposed the British tendencies. Muslim League had supported the partition.
Minto-Morley constitutional reforms (1909)
- The Government of India which was headed by Lord Minto as Viceroy and John Morley as the Secretary of State offered fresh reforms in the Legislative Councils.
- They began discussions with Moderates within Indian National Congress regarding this. However, when the decision was taken, not just Moderates but the country as a whole were disappointed.
- The real purpose of the Morley-Minto Reforms was to divide the nationalist ranks and encourage the growth of Muslim communalism.
- For the latter, they introduced the system of separate electorates under which Muslims could only vote for Muslim candidates in constituencies specially reserved for them.
Communal literature and Forced convesion :
- Literature like Satayarth Prakash and rangeela rasool had widen the gulf between communities. Shudhi movement in Mewat, Haryana and arrival of taabligi jamat to counter it had instilled hatred against each other.
Invocation of Religion into Politics:
- Khilafat movement invoked Muslim cause into politics. Thought it bring unity but it weakened the the secular cause.
Events led to partition
- Muslim leaders didn’t get win in elections in 1939 and it led to more frequent demand of separate country by Jinnah and other Muslim leaders.
- Gandhi-Jinnah talk failed, and nobody came up with good solution for both Hindu-Muslim to live in harmony.
Demand for Pakistan and failure of cabinet mission plan:
- The participation of Muslim masses in independence was no where compare to Hindus. Election in 1946 affirmed the Muslim league as a sole Muslim party. And the failure of cabinet mission plan, paved the way for
- Further few congress leaders also started believing that separate country is good solution than having later civil war. Direct action day was final straw that made partition a reality.
- Another problem was very bad implementation of partition. It caused panic in country, and lead to the death of so many people.
Plethora of incidents, and was not a one step move divides the hindu muslim communities and led to wekening of freedom struggle and The partition of the Indian subcontinent into into two separate nations.